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Pharyngitis is an inflammatory process of a mucous membrane of a throat of acute or chronic character. Pharyngitis is shown by irritation, discomfortable and pain in a throat.
It is accepted to subdivide pharyngitis into types it agrees with localization of an inflammation. The throat at the person has three departments – a nasopharynx (upper part), a stomatopharynx (average department) and a laryngopharynx (lower part). But such division in most cases will be only conditional, at development of acute pharyngitis there is a diffusion damage of a mucous membrane. Defeat by bacterial and viral infections happens mirgiruyushche and generally has the descending character. If at the patient chronic pharyngitis develops, then the inflammation happens in one of the departments of a throat stated above.
Generally pharyngitis at children and adults arises owing to inhalation of too cold or contaminated air. Also some irritations chemicals – tobacco, alcohol, etc. can provoke display of pharyngitis. Developing of infectious pharyngitis happens owing to influence of microbes — streptococci, stafilokokk, pneumococci. Also it develops under the influence of a number of viruses and fungi. Sometimes display of pharyngitis causes distribution of an infection from the inflammation center, close to a throat. Often pharyngitis is shown at patients with rhinitis, sinusitis, caries.
In certain cases development of chronic pharyngitis happens owing to existence of pathology of a digestive tract. It is possible at cholecystitis, gastritis, pancreatitis. Chronic catarral pharyngitis is shown as an effect of hit of acid contents of a stomach in a throat in a dream if at the person the gastroesophageal reflux disease progresses. At such situation it is important to eliminate the main illness initially. Also the reasons of atrophic changes of a mucous membrane of a throat malicious smoking becomes frequent.
Development of pharyngitis is often observed at people who suffer from constantly complicated breath from a nose. Development of pharyngitis is directly influenced both by continuous breath by a mouth, and influence of vasoconstrictive drops which flow down also in a throat.
Chronic pharyngitis also sometimes develops as an allergy effect, and also at the patients having various endocrine frustration at a diabetes mellitus, and also at a heart, pulmonary and renal failure.
Types of pharyngitis
The disease is subdivided into acute and chronic pharyngitis. In turn, considering an etiological factor, allocate viral, fungal, bacterial, allergic, traumatic acute pharyngitis, and also the pharyngitis provoked by action of the irritating factors.
Classification of chronic pharyngitises is carried out according to nature of changes which are shown in a mucous membrane. Allocate catarral (idle time), atrophic (subatrophic) and hypertrophic pharyngitis. Quite often the combination of different types of pharyngitises takes place. In that case the mixed disease form is defined.
Most often the catarral form of a disease at a SARS occurs among acute pharyngitises. In general about 70% of pharyngitises arise as a result of influence of different viruses — coronaviruses, rhinoviruses, adenovirus, influenza viruses and a parainfluenza. Most often pharyngitis develops under the influence of rhinoviruses. However the viral infection causes only primary development of a disease which already develops further under the influence of a bacterial infection. In more exceptional cases pharyngitis can develop also under the influence of other viruses.
In development of a disease at the person the expressed pharyngitis symptoms are noted. The expressed irritation in a throat, feeling of constant dryness and discomfort is characteristic of this disease. The patient can complain of existence of pain in the course of swallowing which is most expressed at an empty drink. Sometimes development of pharyngitis is connected with the expressed febricula, increase of body temperature. If at pharyngitis there is an inflammatory process of tubofaringealny rollers, then the patient can feel ear pain. In the course of a palpation of cervical lymph nodes the patient can feel their morbidity and increase. There is also a hyperemia of a back wall of a throat and handles of the sky. However the inflammation of almonds which takes place at quinsy is not observed.
At chronic pharyngitis there is no fervescence, and also overall health of the patient significantly does not worsen. The person constantly feels dryness in a throat, irritation and feeling of a lump in a throat that causes in it constant desire to clear the throat. At pharyngitis at the patient persistent dry cough which significantly differs from cough at bronchitis is noted. The constant sensation of discomfort at a chronic form of pharyngitis causes also the necessity to constantly swallow of slime which collects on a back wall of a throat slime. As a result of people becomes very irritable, cannot normally sleep and be engaged in commonplaces, without distracting.
Symptoms of atrophic pharyngitis are expressed by strong dryness of a throat. Her mucous membrane is thinned, sometimes it becomes covered with the dried slime. Sometimes not mucosal surfaces are looked through the injected vessels. Existence on a back wall of a throat of the centers of a giperplazirovanny adenoid tissue is characteristic of hypertrophic pharyngitis. Tubofaringealny rollers can also increase. At an exacerbation of a disease the hyperemia, hypostasis of a mucous membrane is added to these symptoms of pharyngitis.
Chronic pharyngitis at children is sometimes expressed not only constant dry cough, but also existence of the whistling rattles. Therefore at survey the doctor has to differentiate accurately this state with bronchial asthma.
Complications of pharyngitis
Complication of acute pharyngitis which was not cured in time it becomes frequent chronic pharyngitis. At the same time the chronic form of a disease provokes development of some other unpleasant diseases over time. At streptococcal pharyngitis peritonsillar abscess at which morbidity in a throat, unilateral hypostasis and an erythema is noted can become complication.
Some forms of pharyngitis (in particular, a form of an illness which is caused by a b-hemolitic streptococcus of group A) also provoke afterwards development in the person of acute joint rheumatism.
One more unpleasant complication of chronic pharyngitis is the general decline in quality of life. The patient with a chronic form of an illness cannot tell a long time. Therefore for people whose profession is connected with need of lecturing and other types of speaking, such illness can become very big problem. At chronic pharyngitis removal of almonds is contraindicated. Therefore the inflammation can be aggravated over time, and as a result the voice timbre at the person considerably changes.
Diagnosis of pharyngitis
The experienced specialist otorhinolaryngologist without special difficulties can diagnose both acute, and chronic pharyngitis. It is initially necessary to carry out survey of the patient. The faringoskopiya – survey of a mucous membrane of a sore throat is for this purpose carried out. In certain cases to the patient additional bacteriological or virologic research is appointed. For its carrying out the smear from a throat is used.
It should be noted that in the presence of pharyngitis symptoms patients rather seldom at once address the specialist, preferring to treat an illness house means or to accept drugs without appointment of the doctor. But even at occurrence of some simplification of a state the reason of pharyngitis will remain not eliminated. For this reason it is important to conduct examination in time and to appoint the correct therapy of pharyngitis.
Treatment of pharyngitis
If acute pharyngitis is diagnosed for the patient or there was a sharp aggravation of a chronic form of an illness, and at the same time in the general condition of the person the expressed frustration are not noted, then in this case the symptomatic treatment of pharyngitis is applied. It is important that sick some period kept to a diet, without using the dishes irritating a mucous membrane. It is not necessary to use hot and very cold dishes, acid and salty food during the acute period. It is important not to exchange to use a lot of liquid for the purpose of activation of removal from an organism of toxins. In days it is necessary to drink not less than two liters of different drinks. Hot bathtubs for legs, carrying out the warming compresses which put on a neck in front are shown. It is possible to use the steam inhalations made in house conditions and also to drink warm milk with honey. Very important for the period of an illness completely to refuse smoking. At uncomplicated pharyngitis treatment by antibiotics does not practice.
Sometimes the doctor appoints local germicides, and also antibacterial agents. At pharyngitis antiseptic drug is usually appointed – it can be Hexetidinum, hlorgeksidin, benzydamine, Ambazonum, etc. Also local anesthetics and essential oils (pantocain, lidocaine, menthol) are used. Use of the drugs containing natural antiseptic agents, vitamins is possible.
Antimicrobic means are applied to rinsing of a throat, in the form of inhalations, insufflations, tablets and lollipops. It is important that drugs which have a broad spectrum of activity against microbes and viruses were applied on a mucous membrane. At the same time they should not be toxic, provoking irritation and allergic reactions.
Drugs in the form of lollipops for a rassasyvaniye, as a rule, are appointed at easy forms of pharyngitis. It is important to consider what is a part of the majority of such drugs hlorgeksidin which is toxic. Therefore it is impossible to allow exceeding of doses of drugs and their uncontrolled reception. The last especially concerns children.
Some drugs containing, for example, propolis derivative iodine, streptocides can cause allergic reactions. Medicines which contain essential oils and vegetable antiseptic agents can also provoke display of an allergy at some patients.
To reduce pain in a throat, for rinsing it is possible to use not hot solutions of Furacilin, light solution of potassium permanganate. It is possible to practice rinsings during the acute period each hour.
If pharyngitises arise at the person too often, then it is the direct certificate of problems with protective forces of an organism. Therefore, treatment of pharyngitis has to include in certain cases and correction of immunity.
Therefore the doctor has to appoint optimum drug for treatment of pharyngitis only, being guided by his antimicrobic activity, and also specific features of the patient.
Treatment of pharyngitis folk remedies
How to treat pharyngitis, also traditional medicine can tell. There is a number of broths of herbs which can be used both for the use inside, and for rinsing of a throat. As drink at an acute state it is reasonable to use decoction of leaves of raspberry, tea from a camomile, mint, blackberry.
For preparation of grass collecting which is effective at treatment of pharyngitis and is used for rinsing it is possible to take leaves of a sage and mint, camomile flowers, fennel fruits in equal parts. One tablespoon of the crushed collecting should be filled in with a glass of boiled water and to insist on an extent of twenty minutes.
Similarly one more collecting which the acorus root, flax seeds, camomile flowers, a grass of the tributary enters prepares.
Treatment of pharyngitis folk remedies provides also use of some broths and infusions of herbs for inhalations. For this purpose often use infusion of a camomile, bark of an oak, a sage, buds of a pine, a calendula. To prepare herb infusions which are used for inhalation it is necessary to take 10 g of the crushed raw materials on one glass of boiled water. Such inhalations continue five minutes, they can be done several times per day, using different herbs.
Besides, at any form of pharyngitis traditional medicine recommends to rinse a throat crude juice of potatoes, infusion from leaves of bilberry and berries decoction.
If the person has atrophic pharyngitis, then oil inhalations can improve its state. Peach, olive, Menthol oil is suitable for such inhalation. It is possible to prepare solution for inhalation at the rate of 5-10 drops of oil on a glass of boiled water. It is necessary to inhale fumes through a funneled tubule several times per day.
Soda inhalations (one teaspoon of soda on one glass of water) considerably soften dryness in a throat.
Prevention of pharyngitis
For prevention of pharyngitis it is important to provide the general hardening of an organism, to try to avoid influence of harmful factors, and also to get rid of addictions – smoking, an alcohol abuse. If at the person for certain reasons the difficulty of nasal breath is observed, then this problem it is necessary to treat adequately further to avoid pharyngitis. It is not less important to fix all problems with teeth in time, to treat caries of teeth. It is also necessary to recover the broken protective forces of an organism for what reception of means with properties of immunoproofreaders is in certain cases appointed.
Section: Diseases of an ear throat-nose