And whether you know...
Phenaminum is provided to Wikipedias in article under the name amphetamine. Also this substance has the name alpha metilfeniletilamin. The chemical compound represents a strong stimulator of the central nervous system, derivative a feniletilamina. Means stimulates development of specific neuromediators of noradrenaline and dopamine.
Means is carried to recreational psychoactive things which can cause strong mental dependence. Turnover of amphetamine in the world is limited to the national and international legislation.
For the first time this substance was synthesized in 1887 in Germany. By 20 years of the 20th its century began to apply as substitute of eurysynusic ephedrine to treatment of bronchial asthma. In 1930 the American biochemist Gordon Alles investigated psychoactive properties of Phenaminum. By 1937 medicine began to be let out in the form of capsules for treatment of an illness of Parkinson, a narcolepsy and a depression as tablets for weight loss. Since then many patients began to abuse this drug.
Especially actively medicine began to be applied during World War II and in post-war years. By 60 years of the 20th century substance use effects, amphetamine psychoses, cases of recreational use were everywhere observed. In 1970 on the International convention on psychotropic substances means was entered in the list of controlled drugs.
Phenaminum in the form of the free basis represents the oily colourless liquid possessing a specific fish smell. It is badly dissolved in water, but is well soluble in organic solvents. In drugs substance most often is in a type of salts which are well dissolved in water. Sulfate, phosphate and a hydrochloride of Phenaminum – white finely divided powder. The hydrochloride is also soluble in methanol, chloroform and ethanol.
The space isomerism is characteristic of this chemical compound. Substance exists in the form of couple of enantiomer: left-handed and dextrorotatory. It should be noted that S-(+) - amphetamine or dekstroamfetamin (right) is 4 times stronger than R-(−) - amphetamine. Levamfetamin stronger influences a sympathetic nervous system. The molecular mass of Phenaminum = 135,2 grams on mol.
In the medical purposes substance is let out in the form of tablets or capsules for peroral use. Addicts prefer to accept means intranazalno or orally, is more rare – intravenously.
Stimulating central nervous system, peripheral adrenomimetichesky.
Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics
Substance considerably improves mood, increases attention and working capacity, gives feeling of confidence and comfort. Also Phenaminum increases speech and physical activity, suppresses appetite, eliminates drowsiness. Means stimulates a sympathetic nervous system, raises the ABP, causes a mydriasis.
Under effect of the medicine emission of catecholamines, especially dopamine and noradrenaline from presynaptic nerve terminations increases. At usual conditions emission of dopamine happens by an exocytosis of vesicles which support him. Then dopamine is back taken in a cell and the DAT conveyor moves a neuromediator to cytoplasm, and the VMAT conveyor – back to a vesicle. After amphetamine reception conveyors begin to move dopamine from a vesicle to cytoplasm further in a synaptic gap. Mechanism of emission of noradrenaline similar. Also substance stimulates serotonin emission, but is considerable to a lesser extent.
At the use of tablets and capsules biological availability of means makes about 70%. Substance has average extent of linkng with proteins of plasma – from 15 to 40%. Medicine breaks a blood-brain barrier. Medicine by means of P450 cytochrome (CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP1A2) and enzyme flavin-soderzhashchyaya monooxygenase is metabolized. It is remarkable that the right isomer is metabolized more actively than left.
About 30% of substance are removed from an organism in not changed view with the help of kidneys. Depending on a hydrogen indicator of urine the elimination half-life of means makes from 8 to 30 hours (accelerates in acid medium). Also means is removed in the form of hippuric acid, para-hydroxyamphetamine, phenylacetone, a benzoilglyukuronid and a norefedrin.
Indications to use
Drugs on the basis of Phenaminum are appointed:
- for treatment of a syndrome of deficit of attention and a hyperactivity at children's age;
- at a narcolepsy;
- to patients in the asthenic state caused by overfatigue;
- in astheno-depressive states;
- for stimulation of patrimonial activity;
- at poisoning with hypnotic drugs or drugs.
Medicine is contraindicated:
- at diseases of cardiovascular system;
- to patients with atherosclerosis;
- at the raised ABP;
- to the persons suffering from hyper excitability;
- at anomalies in a heart structure;
- at a hyperthyroidism;
- to patients who abuse alcohol or drugs;
- to pregnant women and the nursing women.
Extra care is recommended to be observed:
- at anorexia and diseases of a liver;
- to patients with arterial hypertension benign;
- at bipolar disorder, sleeplessness or psychoses;
- if earlier the patient had an epilepsy, tics or Turett's syndrome;
- at a porphyria;
- to patients with closed-angle glaucoma.
Reception of Phenaminum can cause:
- nausea, headaches, dizziness, fever;
- disturbance of a sleep pattern and cordial conductivity, tachycardia and arrhythmia;
- accustoming and development of tolerance.
At long use medicine can initiate development of psychological frustration, paradoxical reactions, psychoses, decrease in working capacity, apathy, drowsiness.
Phenaminum, application instruction (Way and dosage)
Capsules and a pill take inside, in the first half of day. The mode of dosing and duration of treatment depend on a disease and age of the patient.
Phenaminum, application instruction
As a rule, appoint 5-10 mg of means, once a day. Also there is a scheme of treatment at which tablets drink 2 times a day.
The maximum one-time dosage makes 10 mg. Daily – 20 mg. Duration of treatment is from 7 to 14 days.
In need of use of drug for stimulation of patrimonial activity one-time accept 20 mg of medicine.
Abuse of Phenaminum first of all constitutes danger to cardiovascular system. Overdose causes tachycardia, the increased arterial pressure, a vasospasm. Can arise: ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, stratification of an aorta, subarachnoidal hemorrhage, metabolic acidosis, acute renal failure, coagulopathy and rabdomioliz.
At overdose reception of benzodiazepines, a propofol or barbiturates, the vasodilators and adrenoblockers, drugs lowering arterial pressure is shown. Also, to reduce the body temperature of the patient it is recommended to apply external cooling.
Medicine extremely is not recommended to be combined with guanetidiny, moklobemidy, MAO inhibitors.
Tablets and capsules it is better not to wash down with acid drinks or juice.
Efficiency of drug is reduced by beta adrenoblockers and benzodiazepines.
Terms of sale
In the territory of the Russian Federation and other states substance falls strictly according to the recipe. Phenaminum is included into the list of narcotic and psychotropic drugs which turn is prohibited. It is possible to buy Phenaminum according to the recipe from the attending physician in specialized drugstores.
Substance is stored in original packaging in the dry and cool place.
At the moment drug is seldom prescribed to patients, doctors give preference to safer medicines.
With care substance is applied in pediatric practice, correction of a dosage can be required.
For weight loss
In the middle of the 20th century substance was appointed sometimes as drug for weight loss. At the moment medicine is not used.
Trade names of drug: Adderall, Dekstroamfetamin, Lizdeksamfetamin, amphetamine Sulphate, Psychotonum, Bezpropamid, Aktedrinum, Amfamin, Benzedrine sulfate, Izoamin, Psychedrinum, Raphetaminum, Sympaminum, Alentolum, Amfedrin, benzedrine Sulphate, Ortedrinum, Racephenum, Sympatedrinum.
It is not enough reviews of Phenaminum, medicine is appointed seldom. Nevertheless, from those that are available – responses generally positive. Side reactions develop not more often than it is declared in the official instruction. It is important to take medicine according to recommendations of the doctor to avoid development of side effects.
Phenaminum price where to buy
It is almost impossible to buy Phenaminum in the territory of the Russian Federation as it is entered in the list of the substances prohibited to a turn.
Phenaminum, the price in a drugstore
At the moment it is impossible to specify the actual price of Phenaminum.
Section: Active ingredients
PAY ATTENTION! Information on active ingredients on the website is help generalizing, collected from public sources and can form the basis for making decision on use of these substances it is not aware of treatment. Before substance Phenaminum use surely consult with the attending physician.