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The fibroadenoma is high-quality education of which very clear boundary is characteristic, in it there is no capsule. Such tumor has a soft and elastic consistence, easily moves and does not cause pain. Quite so the called symptom of "float" is also the main distinctive symptom of a fibroadenoma. The tumor consists of connecting and ferruterous fabric, develops in a mammary gland. In a fibroadenoma, unlike adenoma, the connective tissue stroma, but not a ferruterous parenchyma prevails. Till today there are no exact data on the reasons of development of similar educations. The size of fibroadenomas can vary, having a diameter from couples millimeters to five centimeters. Growth of a fibroadenoma happens owing to influence of estrogen. If the fibroadenoma of a mammary gland differs in the small size (to 1 cm), then, being guided by data of ultrasonic research, it is rather difficult to distinguish it from a cyst. Rather often the fibroadenoma is diagnosed for girls at teenage age: education arises in view of disturbance of a menstrual cycle. Also fibroadenomas often appear at women after carrying out abortions and the use of contraceptives. Very often
fibroadenomas independently disappear in the course of puberty. And during pregnancy they can become larger.
Clinical picture of a fibroadenoma
This education does not provoke manifestation of explicit symptoms. Most often it is revealed at women whose age makes from 20 to 30 years. However the asymptomatic fibroadenoma can be diagnosed also for patients at much advanced age. As a rule, in such cases similar educations in a breast reveal during preventive inspections.
Fibroadenomas can be divided into two types. Mature fibroadenomas have the dense, well issued capsule, differ in a plotnoelastichesky consistence, grow very slowly or do not increase in sizes in general. They are diagnosed, as a rule, for women whose age makes from 20 to 40 years. In turn, unripe fibroadenomas have a myagkoelastichesky consistence and are inclined to increase very quickly. Tumors of this type generally reveal at patients of early age who stay in the puberty period. In many cases the similar fibroadenoma of a mammary gland disappears independently after at the girl completely to be established a monthly cycle. Generally the fibroadenoma appears as a single tumor in a mammary gland. Cases of emergence of multiple fibroadenomas are more seldom diagnosed. At the same time such educations can appear in both mammary glands.
During survey of the patient the specialist defines similar education as a hypodermic tumor in a mammary gland. During a palpation the fibroadenoma is very accurately delimited and displaced, also its dense elastic consistence is noticeable. In most cases diseases the fibroadenoma is placed out of an areolar zone. Generally the tumor is localized in an outside upper quadrant of a mammary gland.
Diagnosis of a fibroadenoma
In order that as fast as possible and effectively to establish the diagnosis, specialists use the following methods. First of all careful inspection and the subsequent palpation of a mammary gland is performed. For more exact statement of the diagnosis it is necessary to conduct ultrasonic research of a mammary gland. If the specialist has certain doubts concerning statement of the diagnosis, then x-ray mammography is in addition carried out. The method of exact diagnosis excluding the malignant nature of education is the fine-needle aspiration biopsy of a sample of fabric of a tumor and its further cytologic research.
In the course of diagnosis very important point is accurate differentiation with the following diseases: breast cancer, tsistadenopapilloma, lactocele.
During diagnosis define the following histologic types of a fibroadenoma: intrakanalikulyarny, leaflike (filloidny), perikanalikulyarny fibroadenoma. Most often today fibroadenomas of the mixed structure type are diagnosed (intra-, perikanalikulyarny type). The most rare type of a tumor — a leaflike fibroadenoma. The leaflike fibroadenoma is defined as boundary between malignant and high-quality educations. It in most cases has rather impressive sizes and grows extraordinary quickly, for a short time reaching the huge sizes.
Treatment of a fibroadenoma
When determining methods and the general tactics of treatment of a fibroadenoma of a mammary gland it is important to consider two most important properties of this education. First, conservative treatment does not influence a fibroadenoma. Secondly, the fibroadenoma does not pass into a malignant form over time. Only the leaflike fibroadenoma approximately in 10% of cases can regenerate in sarcoma of a mammary gland over time. Therefore, treatment of a fibroadenoma of a mammary gland to be carried out by surgical intervention. As indications to operational treatment of a fibroadenoma it is possible to consider a number of the following characteristics. As the absolute indication to carrying out operation it is necessary to consider existence of leaflike type of a fibroadenoma. Also it is necessary to operate education which the big size (more than 2 cm) has or causes cosmetic defect. The tumor is deleted at the request of the woman or when the fibroadenoma grows very quickly. For today tumor enucleation from paraareolar access is most often applied to surgical treatment of similar tumors. Operation needs to be performed only in specialized institutions. As a rule, after it there is no need for treatment in the conditions of a hospital. After carrying out operation within ten days the wound should be processed antiseptic agents then seams are removed. After several years the hem becomes almost imperceptible. In all other cases after carrying out diagnosis the fibroadenoma should be observed constantly, regularly conducting ultrasonic research. In certain cases on site, from where the tumor was removed, after a while new education appears again.
Prevention of a fibroadenoma
Today it is not known of certain methods of primary prevention of a fibroadenoma. As secondary prevention it is necessary to conduct regular careful examinations of a mammary gland with use of modern methods of inspection.