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The gastroenteritis is inflammatory processes of a mucous membrane of a stomach, and also intestines. This illness can be shown owing to hit of an infection in an organism (a gastroenteritis of virus type). Also this illness is sometimes shown at the food poisonings provoked by bacteria or toxins and also against treatment by certain drugs. The gastroenteritis at children most often arises as reaction to emergence in a diet of the child of a certain new product. The acute gastroenteritis at children can arise even when feeding by a breast if mother ate food, unusual for the baby.
As a rule, gripes, vomiting, nausea, a liquid chair and rather strong abdominal distention are considered as the main symptoms of this disease. If all described symptoms are also accompanied by high temperature, then such signs are characteristic of a gastroenteritis infectious.
In case of constant vomiting and a diarrhea for two days it is necessary to address the specialist to warn organism dehydration. Rather dangerous moment — emergence of traces of blood to Calais, and pain of high intensity around intestines. If body temperature at a gastroenteritis exceeds 38 degrees, then it is necessary to call the ambulance at once. The menacing gastroenteritis symptoms — dizziness and opacification of consciousness.
Similar signs can be observed also at a gastroenteritis at children. However at the child who did not reach two-year age yet, high temperature should not keep more than two days. Immediately it is necessary to call the doctor if at a gastric disturbance slackness, retraction of eyeglobes and dryness in a mouth is observed. If the kid of chest age has no tears, retraction of a fontanel is observed, not enough urine is emitted, so there was organism dehydration.
The main symptoms of a gastroenteritis of acute type which is provoked, as a rule, by low-quality food is vomiting, a diarrhea, the increased temperature, pain in muscles and feeling of weakness.
At a chronic gastroenteritis symptoms are expressed less, but at the same time they take place constantly. This disease is shown owing to disturbance of a diet, frequent alcohol intake and greasy food. Parasites can provoke also this type of a gastroenteritis. Owing to this illness immunity of the person is considerably weakened, at its current mucous membranes become more thinly, intestinal microflora is significantly broken.
The gastroenteritis virus is accompanied by vomiting and a diarrhea. These symptoms appear already next day after in an organism there is an infection, and can proceed within a week. Contact with the infectious person who is not respecting the rules of hygiene can become the reason of an infection.
The kind of such disease — a rotavirusny gastroenteritis at which the patient has an increased temperature goes down pressure, pulse to become weak and the general dehydration of an organism is shown.
Complications of a gastroenteritis
At a rotavirusny gastroenteritis manifestation of hypovolemic shock is possible. This so severe dehydration that at its emergence real threat for human life appears.
Diagnosis of a gastroenteritis
Diagnosis of a disease is carried out with studying of a clinical picture. The attending physician in detail studies data of the epidemiological anamnesis, and also all results of laboratory researches. If the diagnosis is not confirmed by laboratory methods, then reliable it cannot be considered. As laboratory methods those researches which give the chance to find a virus, a viral antigen in excrements are applied or to find specific antibodies in blood serum.
Treatment of a gastroenteritis
First of all, it is necessary to accept to attention that treatment of a gastroenteritis does not assume use of antibiotics. All other drugs should be applied only after diagnosis of an illness and appointment of the attending physician.
At the first noticeable symptoms of a gastroenteritis it is necessary to use the following methods. Within the first hours after manifestation of symptoms of an illness it is necessary to refuse completely any food that will help to recover activity of a digestive tract. However at the same time it is necessary to drink as much as possible liquid – waters, juice. When the patient feels that displays of nausea become weaker, he should eat a little rice, crackers, bananas.
The gastroenteritis at children assumes very attentive relation to a problem. At its first signs it is necessary to fill liquid loss with an organism. In the course of an oral regidration means is used pedialit. It is necessary to give to drink constantly to the sick child tea, broth of a dogrose or simple water. However the use of juice from apples or milk influences a condition of a stomach and intestines negatively.
At a gastroenteritis at the baby, it is necessary to remove feeding time for an hour, and during it it is necessary to put to a breast of the kid for a while. The children raised by an artificial method should give small doses of medicines for an oral regidration.
If at the patient the exacerbation of an illness is observed, then treatment of a gastroenteritis continues already in the conditions of a hospital. To patients with a gastroenteritis appoint a diet No. 4 which is based on the use of a certain amount of animal protein and digestible fats. At a gastroenteritis it is necessary to eat often and fractionally — on 5-6 times a day. The food without fail has to be warm.
To prevent emergence of a diarrhea, patients should drink a lot of liquid surely: it is desirable that it was acidophilic milk, kissel and juice from fruit.
Very often at this disease at patients avitaminosis is noted. In this case the general treatment joins reception of vitamins A, In, BP, B2, D12, folic acid. If the hemorrhagic phenomena take place, then vitamin K reception is appointed sick. Very often attending physician appoints to the patient vitamin complexes — Undevitum, Panhexavitum, dekamevit.
As medicamentous therapy oxyquinoline derivatives are most often used, and also bifidumbacterium Kolibakterin. In case of disturbances of internal digestion it is impossible to use drugs of digestive enzymes.
During a gastroenteritis aggravation the state is facilitated by the knitting and enveloping drugs. It is bismuth nitrate, Tannalbinum, Thealbinum. Rather effective impact is made also not which phytodrugs, for example, a grass of a coil, St. John's Wort, tansy.
At untimely treatment of this illness or in case of disturbance of the mode of treatment the heavy stage of a gastroenteritis can develop. In the presence of such state intravenous injection of proteinaceous hydrolyzates and plasmas is made. After relative normalization of a condition of the patient it is possible to pass to a drop method of administration of drugs by means of a nitragastralny probe. At the same time anabolic steroid hormones can be appointed.
Rather effective treatment of a gastroenteritis are various physiotherapeutic procedures. Quickly and effectively operating methods the warming compresses, a diathermy, ozokerite, an inductothermy, paraffin applications are most. There is a treatment of patients much easier if do not work during this period intellectually and physically.
Prevention of a gastroenteritis
Prevention of a gastroenteritis first of all has to be directed to preventions of development of a chronic form of this illness. For prevention of display of this illness it is necessary to anticipate whenever possible completely all factors provoking a gastroenteritis in a chronic form. It is very important that the person adhered as much as possible to a healthy lifestyle and paid attention to correctness of food.