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Antritis, frontal sinusitis and other sinusitis
September 5, 2011
Sinusitis (from armor. "sinus" – a bosom) represents an inflammation of adnexal bosoms of a nose — cavities in skull bones which are reported in a nasal cavity through openings. Bosoms exist in maxillary bones (Highmore's bosoms), in frontal bones (frontal bosoms), in a sievebone (etmoidalny bosoms). Except them is still wedge-shaped (a sphenoidal bosom), located behind etmoidalny bosoms in an upper part of a nose.
Proceeding from it, distinguish several types of sinusitis. Antritis – an inflammation of a maxillary (Highmore's) bosom, a frontal sinusitis – an inflammation of a frontal sinus, etmoidit – an inflammation of a trellised labyrinth and a sphenoiditis — an inflammation of a wedge-shaped bosom. Sinusitis can be one - or bilateral, with damage of one or all bosoms of a nose. The most widespread types of sinusitis are antritis and a frontal sinusitis.
Allocate two types of sinusitis — acute which arises as a result of acute rhinitis, flu, infectious diseases and lasts 2-3nedel, and also chronic which results from not enough cured sinusitis. Also distinguish 3 forms of an inflammation of bosoms — purulent when bosoms contain pus, catarral when the inflammation mentions a mucosal surface, and allocations in the form of slime, and also the mixed form are observed.
Diagnosis of sinusitis defines basic reasons of developing of sinusitis which are:
- not up to the end cured cold, acute rhinitis, SARS (flu, quinsy, scarlet fever);
- chronic cold;
- diseases of roots of 4 upper back teeth;
- sick adenoides;
- immunity disturbances to which can lead long chronic diseases;
- hypertrophied rhinitis;
- inborn disturbances of development of anatomic features of a nose;
- curvature of a nasal partition;
- nose injuries.
During decrease in immunity or overcooling, the organism cannot fight back disease-producing bacteria that leads to their hit on mucous a nose. The arising hypostasis leads to disturbance of ventilation of a bosom which is isolated from a nasal cavity and in which slime begins to be emitted, filling a bosom. In slime bacteria breed, pus which, coming to blood, sends an organism is formed. If sinusitis not to treat, it passes into a chronic form and there are complications of sinusitis.
Symptoms of sinusitis
Symptoms of sinusitis are:
- the headache and pain in cheekbones, cheeks, teeth strengthening by the evening;
- feeling of a raspiraniye, pressure in a forehead, a nose, cheeks;
- the nose congestion, is possible an alternate congestion of both nostrils, mucous or purulent discharges from a nose;
- emergence of the aggravated sensitivity of a part of the face;
- night cough;
- weakness, fatigue, irritability;
- easing of sense of smell.
One of the most frequent options of sinusitis is antritis. Usually it arises against cold and other diseases, and also as a result of an inflammation of roots of 4 back upper teeth.
The main symptoms of antritis are pressure sense in the inflamed bosom, and also headaches in a forehead, cheekbones, the pain taking a half of the face and also when pressing on cheeks. Pain can amplify at change of position of the head. Also the dentagra which amplifies when chewing can be observed. At patients with antritis nasal breath is broken, the snuffling voice, and also transparent or purulent discharges from a nose appears. Patients can complain of dacryagogue, a photophobia, decrease in sense of smell. Sometimes body temperature increases and the general state worsens, the person becomes sluggish, cannot concentrate. Puffiness of a cheek on side of the affected bosom, hypostasis of a lower eyelid, unpleasant feelings in ears can be observed.
The acute form of antritis lasts usually 2 weeks and if not to treat it, then antritis passes into a chronic form. Distinguish also rhinogenic, dontogenous, hematogenous and traumatic antritises.
The frontal sinusitis is an inflammation of frontal adnexal sinuses of a nose. At a disease of a frontal sinusitis are observed pain in a forehead which amplifies when pressing and during inclinations, disturbance of nasal breath, discoloration of integuments over bosoms, and also a swelling in a forehead. The chronic frontal sinusitis is followed by a hypertrophy of a mucous membrane of a nose and polyps.
Etmoidit has the following symptoms:
- hypostasis of soft tissues around eyes and a century;
- pain between eyes;
- partial loss of sense of smell.
- pains around a neck.
All specified symptoms of sinusitis amplify at a ducking forward.
Diagnosis of sinusitis
The ENT SPECIALIST diagnoses acute catarral and purulent sinusitis on the basis of poll of the patient, survey of a cavity of a nasopharynx and results of the roentgenogram of okolonosovy bosoms. Hypostasis of mucous membranes leads to blackout of bosoms on the roentgenogram, and accumulation of exudate (pus) looks as liquid level.
For diagnosing of chronic sinusitis the doctor appoints a computer tomography of okolonosovy bosoms that will allow to reveal cysts, polyps and other changes.
Treatment of sinusitis
Treatment of diseases is carried out in a LOR-hospital. The drug treatment directed to reduction of a rhinedema and improvement of outflow from nose bosoms is applied to treatment of sinusitis. Vasoconstrictive drugs (Naphthyzinum, oxymetazoline, Nazivin, Halazolinum, naphazoline) in the form of drops for a nose, aerosols, ointments which, however, it is impossible to apply more than 5 days are for this purpose appointed. These drugs allow to reduce hypostasis mucous a nose and to recover passability of soustiya of okolonosovy bosoms. After that it is possible to carry out a nasal cavity irrigation (Cametonum, Bioparox). At temperature increase febrifugal drugs (aspirin, paracetamol, Citramonum) are appointed.
In couples allergic antritis antihistaminic therapy is appointed (loratadin, tsetirizin, Suprastinum, tavegil). Prevention of sinusitis, with the purpose to avoid recurrence of a disease is important for people inclined to an allergy.
Important element of treatment of sinusitis is washing of a nose antiseptic solutions (a method of movement or "cuckoo") thanks to what mucous a nose it is cleared of microbes, dust, and also the inflammation decreases.
If the inflammation of bosoms became purulent, then antibiotics are appointed. The choice of antibiotics depends on the infectious agent, and usually appoint amoxicillin, lorakarbef, tsefuroksy aksetit. These drugs are used both inside in the form of tablets, and intramusculary and intravenously for 1-2 weeks. Alternative drugs are macroleads, cephalosporin, a tsefaklor.
The complex treatment of sinusitis including homeopathic medicines (Sinupret, Tsinnabsin) which promote reduction of pain and inflammations in nose bosoms is applied.
Corticosteroids promote recovery of outflow from bosoms and reduce expressiveness of allergic reactions. However they are not appointed at purulent sinusitis. If sinusitis arose against allergic rhinitis or bronchial asthma, treatment of a basic disease is obligatory.
If drug treatment of sinusitis is not effective, then appoint washing of a cavity of bosoms and a puncture (puncture) of Highmore's and frontal sinuses. In this case bosoms clear of the pus which accumulated there, wash out bosoms and enter antibiotics, antiinflammatory and antiseptic drugs (a dioxidin, Chinosolum). If it did not help, and at development of various complications, for example, of encephalitis, meningitis, an operative measure is necessary for expansion of openings of bosoms and removal of pus, polyps, and the changed mucous membranes. This a method of treatment is called endoscopic sinus surgery.
UVCh-therapy on bosoms, Ural federal district nasal cavities, blue light, dynamic currents, mud cure, inhalations belong to physiotherapeutic methods of treatment of sinusitis.
Prevention of sinusitis
Prevention of sinusitis is directed to timely treatment of a basic disease (cold, allergic rhinitis, quinsy), and also elimination of factors which are contributing to development of an inflammation in bosoms. It is important to temper an organism, to regularly play sports, not to overcool, to happen often in the fresh air, to accept vitamins and immunnopodderzhivayushchy drugs. Avoid to swim in pools since chlorine annoyingly affects mucous membranes of a nose.
Complications of sinusitis
Such diseases as meningitis, hypostasis of a meninx, fibrinferments a century of an eye-socket, i.e. various intra orbital and intracranial diseases, and also pneumonia, otitises can be complications of sinusitis.
Section: Diseases of an ear throat-nose