Hemodialysis

The hemodialysis – removal poisonous and toxics or waste products from blood by means of a dialysis, is used at a renal failure (acute or chronic), for normalization of electrolytic and water balances, etc.

It is necessary to distinguish such concepts as:

  • Hemodialysis – clarification by means of the device "artificial kidney" through the clearing membrane.
  • Intestinal dialysis – clarification by means of an enteroclysis hypertonic salt solutions.
  • The peritoneal dialysis – a peritoneum is used as a membrane, blood is purified by special solutions.

Emergence of a hemodialysis
Attempts to purify blood were made since antique times when was considered that all diseases because of mixing of liquids in an organism. At that time practically all attempts were vain, and often even dangerous to the patient.

But serious researches in this sphere began to be conducted only in the 19th century when such science as biochemistry, made huge jump in development. At the beginning of the 20th century the first device for a hemodialysis of blood of dogs at whom kidneys were removed was created. This device proved a possibility of effective use of a hemodialysis, but then the membrane filtering blood was absolutely weak, and means against coagulability of blood during procedure is far to perfection therefore before normal development of this process there passed a lot of time. The first successful hemodialysis to the person was made in 1924, and in 20 flyings by means of this procedure it was succeeded to bring the person out of a coma. And process of active development of clarification of blood began.

Essence of procedure
The hemodialysis is directed to removal of excess water from an organism, and also unnecessary substances by means of convection and diffusion (it is carried out through an artificial membrane). Blood is passed via the device where there is its cleaning by means of a membrane, further it in the cleared look returns to a vein again and circulates on an organism. The substances deleted from blood depend on properties of a membrane (from the size of a time, their size), during procedure krupnomalekulyarny substances, electrolytes, etc. can also come to blood. Diffusion practically does not delete toxic substances, but convection well copes with this task. It is carried out at the expense of a difference in pressure of the clearing solution and blood.

Indications to use

  • Alcoholic poisonings and poisonings with alcohols, drugs, poisons, etc.
  • The hyper hydration which is not giving in to therapy
  • Disturbances of electrolytic composition of blood
  • Renal failure
  • Metabolic acidosis
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