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December 20, 2011
The hyperplasia is a state of which increase in quantity of cells in a certain body or fabric is characteristic (an exception tumoral fabric makes). Noticeable increase in volume of body or a new growth becomes result of development of a hyperplasia.
The hyperplasia develops owing to the most different influences which influence reproduction of cells stimuliruyushche. So, growth-promoting factors of fabrics, oncogenous substances, antigenic irritants, loss for any reasons of part of fabric or body can provoke development of a hyperplasia. As a physiological hyperplasia it is accepted to define reproduction of an epithelium of mammary glands during pregnancy, display of a ferruterous hyperplasia of an endometria during the period before periods and other similar manifestations.
As an example of a hyperplasia which progresses in the conditions of pathological it is possible to call increase of quantity of structural elements of myeloid fabric at patients with some forms of anemia. Also hyperplastic processes happen in limforetikulyarny fabric of lymph nodes, in a spleen as an immune response at diseases of infectious character.
Cells can breed indirect or direct (mitotic or amitotichesky) division in the course of increase in proteinaceous and synthetic function of a cell. Initially increase in number of intracellular structures – a so-called intracellular hyperplasia takes place.
The hyperplasia of an endometria of a uterus is an excessive growth of an endometria (an internal cover of a uterus) which gets a pathological form. The endometria suffers changes in process of a monthly cycle at the woman. The endometria owing to influence of hormones on it increases, expecting an oospore. But if conception nevertheless does not happen, it begins to decrease, and the remains leave together with allocations during periods. Further the cycle of changes occurs again.
Endometria hyperplasia symptoms
Distinguish several different types of a hyperplasia of a uterus: a ferruterous, ferruterous and cystous atipichesky hyperplasia of an endometria (other name — adenomatosis), and also endometria polyps (a focal hyperplasia).
The uterus hyperplasia very often occurs in general without symptoms, and find this pathology during routine inspection at ultrasonic research. For this reason it is recommended to pass to all women two times a year gynecologic survey.
Sometimes the hyperplasia of an endometria is shown by periodic uterine bleedings of dysfunctional character. Similar bleedings are most often shown after the woman notes a delay of the next periods, in more exceptional cases of bleeding occur at a regular cycle. Rather widespread phenomenon detection of a hyperplasia of an endometria in the course of inspection of patients who address specialists in connection with infertility is considered today. The hyperplasia of a uterus influences approach of pregnancy in view of the following factors. First, at patients with a similar illness there can not come the ovulation because of existence of hormonal disturbances at all. Secondly, the embryo can almost not be implanted into a mucous membrane of a uterus in which there were pathological changes.
In a similar situation all efforts directed to treatment of infertility will be unsuccessful until the woman does not receive medical treatment the main reason of infertility — an endometria hyperplasia.
Endometria hyperplasia reasons
This illness can arise owing to a set of the reasons. First of all, those are the hormonal imbalance, disturbances of carbohydrate, lipidic, and also other types of a metabolism, an illness of gynecologic character, existence in the past of operative measures in a uterus and appendages. Rather often the hyperplasia of a uterus is diagnosed for patients who have associated diseases: hysteromyoma, endometriosis, giperestrogeniya, mastopathy, polycystosis of ovaries, hypertension. This illness also is diagnosed for people with the increased content of sugar in blood, liver diseases which provoke disturbance of a hormonal exchange.
Diagnosis of a hyperplasia of an endometria
The correct installation of the diagnosis in this case directly influences the subsequent treatment of infertility, and also is one of the most important factors of prevention of cancer of an endometria.
In the course of diagnosis the specialist surely considers the fact that at different types of a hyperplasia of a uterus the various histologic picture is observed. Therefore careful microscopic studying of a structure of sites of growth mucous which receive in the course of a biopsy is carried out. At a ferruterous and ferruterous and cystous hyperplasia approximately identical manifestations are observed, however in the second case they are more brightly expressed. In the presence of endometria polyps the hyperplasia has focal character. If the atipichesky hyperplasia is diagnosed for the patient, then in that case in a uterus there are structural changes of a mucous membrane, glands of an endometria expand is more expressed. In this case doctors define a condition of the patient as a precancerous disease of an endometria.
Especially dangerous person of a hyperplasia of a uterus is its ferruterous form which was again shown after a scraping and shows the expressed resistance to hormonal therapy.
To carry out diagnosis of a hyperplasia of an endometria, some widespread ways are actively used. Most often ultrasonic research of a small pelvis is for this purpose used. By results of ultrasonography the experienced specialist can make the diagnosis "endometria polyps" and define whether the thickening of a mucous uterus takes place. However today the accuracy of this diagnostic method makes no more than sixty percent.
By means of a method of an ekhogisterosalpingografiya it is possible to inspect passability of uterine tubes qualitatively. At the same time in the course of research the doctor sees a cavity of the uterus on the screen and will commit to define existence of features which are typical for polyps of an endometria and a hyperplasia.
To carry out aspiration or a biopsy of a mucous uterus, it is necessary to begin this process in the second half of a monthly cycle of the woman. For carrying out this procedure the specialist should enter under control of ultrasonography especially for it the used tool into a cavity of the uterus. Further with its help a little fabric which will become a sample for research under a microscope is taken. But the experienced doctor considers that this method can also show an incomplete picture of the events. The biopsy not always becomes where there is available a hyperplasia center.
At the moment hysteroscopy is considered the most exact way of diagnosis of a hyperplasia of a uterus. This method is as follows: the optical system is entered into a cavity of the uterus, and with its help the aim biopsy is made. Besides in the course of hysteroscopy it is possible to consider and estimate in what state uterus walls stay.
Treatment of a hyperplasia of an endometria
The most important step in the course of treatment of a hyperplasia of a uterus is removal of a site of a pathological mucous membrane. The specialist carries out a scraping under control of hysteroscopy. After that carrying out histologic research mucous is obligatory. When the center of a hyperplasia is completely removed, carrying out hormonal therapy is appointed. Being guided by existence at the patient of certain symptoms, the specialist appoints reception estrogen-gestagennykh of drugs, pure gestagen or agonists of GNRG.
The way of treatment of a hyperplasia of an endometria is selected in an individual order, process to last not less than three months. In more exceptional cases hormonal therapy is accepted by about six months. To determine how effective was a therapy, repeated research by carrying out a biopsy is conducted. If the severe form of a hyperplasia takes place, the specialist can solve about expediency of removal of a uterus.
Hyperplasia of a thyroid gland
The hyperplasia of a thyroid gland (other name — not nodal craw) is a state at which the volume of gland increases, at the same time increase has not tumoral origin. As a rule, the hyperplasia of a thyroid gland is shown if for certain reasons the thyroid gland stops producing the necessary amount of hormones. In view of a lack of hormones of a cell of a thyroid gland begin to share more quickly, the mass of gland as a result increases and there is a hyperplasia. Till a certain period the hyperplasia of a thyroid gland is rather harmless cosmetic illness. But over time this education can develop into a malignant disease of a thyroid gland.
Often the hyperplasia of a thyroid gland develops in parallel with display of other diseases. In other cases similar pathology is shown without the accurate and visible reasons. It is accepted to distinguish two forms of this type of a hyperplasia: nodal and diffusion. Sometimes the hyperplasia develops against an euthyroidism, a hypothyroidism, a hyperthyroidism.
This disease can develop evenly, at the same time the enlargement of the thyroid gland will be proportional. But in certain cases gland increases only on the one hand. At a hyperplasia in iron small knots can be formed, however the illness can proceed also without similar symptom. Also cysts can be formed, change considerably density of a thyroid gland. At some forms of a hyperplasia of iron to become is softer, at others – is firmer. Cases when owing to a hyperplasia the thyroid gland becomes more in volume by three-four times are fixed.
Increase in gland is the main symptom of this disease. Later at the patient also the difficulty of breath, a problem with swallowing and passing of food on a gullet can be shown. In development of a disease lowering or increase of functions of gland appears.
Diagnosis of this disease is carried out by ultrasonic research of a thyroid gland. Also functions of a thyroid gland are checked with use of a radioiodine.
As prevention of a hyperplasia of a thyroid gland it is important to eat iodized salt constantly.
Prevention of a hyperplasia endometria
Active fight against excess weight, avoidance of the stressful situations, immediate treatment shown is considered the most important measures of prevention of a hyperplasia
disturbances of a monthly cycle. Regular gynecologic survey of women is important.
In certain cases the doctor can recommend to young women for prevention hormonal drugs which reduce risk of a hyperplasia, and also endometria cancer. Each woman has to realize that in case of display of uterine bleedings it is necessary to address the specialist immediately.