Hyperthyroidism (Thyrotoxicosis)

Hyperthyroidism – the state of which excessive release of hormones of a thyroid gland is characteristic is caused by group of diseases of this body. It causes acceleration of processes in an organism and the complications connected with it. The thyrotoxicosis – existence of a surplus of hormones of a thyroid gland, can be caused by a hyperthyroidism, or other diseases of a thyroid gland – a thyroiditis, a nodal craw, a bazedovy illness.

Increase in development and accumulation in an organism of thyroid hormones in 70-80% of cases is connected with increase of activity of a thyroid gland at an illness Bazedov-Greyvsa's background or as it is accepted to call a diffusion toxic craw. Also the nodal or multinodal craw can be the reason. Consolidations of a thyroid gland in the form of nodes provoke increase in activity of body.

Gland inflammations owing to the postponed viral infections – a subacute thyroiditis can also be hyperthyroidism origins, and also leads a large amount of the medicamentous drugs containing thyroid hormones to a hyperthyroidism.

At a hyperthyroidism oxygen consumption by fabrics increases, it increases formation of heat and accelerates energy balance. Sensitivity of fabrics to sympathetic stimulation and catecholamines increases.

The hyperthyroidism provokes increase of a ratio of estrogen to androgens. It is connected with the increased transformation of androgens into estrogen, growth of the contents of the circulating globulin that at normal contents connects sex hormones. The state causes a gynecomastia in men.

Also under the influence of thyroid hormones there is a destruction of a cortisone that results in adrenal insufficiency. It is promoted and the accompanying autoimmune diseases, are exposed to an illness of the woman more often.

Prevention of a hyperthyroidism is often neglected, thereby burdening an overall picture of an illness. Improper feeding, insufficient physical activity and other factors lead to diseases of a thyroid gland.

During a disease distinguish three forms: easy form, moderately severe and heavy. The last form of an illness arises at the wrong treatment or its long absence. Most often complications of a hyperthyroidism arise at a severe form of an illness.

Hyperthyroidism symptoms

ГипертиреозThe thyrotoxicosis causes disturbances in work of many bodies and systems. Excess level of hormones forces an organism to adapt to such operating mode, thereby breaking many processes. Symptoms of a hyperthyroidism consist in many changes both internal, and external.

External changes first of all are noticeable by a condition of skin. At patients perspiration, skin wet by sight thin, a fine hair increases. Nails at the patient also give in to change, there is a painful peeling of plates of nails. Signs of disturbances is also the exophthalmos, there is an external increase in a palpebral fissure and eyeglobes, eyes become goggle. There is a puffiness and hyperpegmentation a century.

From cardiovascular system heart failure as heart cannot cope with the volume of supply with blood of the bodies and fabrics which accelerated the work can develop. Such symptoms of a hyperthyroidism as hypertensia, tachycardia, pulse increase are observed. From respiratory system there is short wind, the vital capacity of lungs decreases.

At easy and average extent of disease at patients appetite is often increased, the heavy current on the contrary differs in its absence. Body weight decreases that is followed by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Disturbances in work of a musculoskeletal system lead to development of osteoporosis, the mass of a bone tissue decreases, there is a disturbance in a structure of bones. In bones potassium collects that strengthens reflexes thereof a physical activity is broken. Signs of disturbances are fast muscular fatigue and a tremor. Patients have hypererethism, nervousness, frequent sleeplessnesses. They are overflowed by sensation of fear and concerns, the intelligence and speech activity increases.

From urinogenital system the frequent urination is observed. Women have a disturbance of a monthly menstrual cycle. Periods are followed by severe pains, scanty allocations, nausea and vomiting. There is the general weakness, a headache and temperature increase. At men the potentiality in turn decreases and there is an increase in mammary glands. Disturbances in work of a reproductive system are connected with the wrong production of sex hormones that often leads to infertility, both at women, and at men.

Because of disturbances in a metabolism which are caused by a thyrotoxicosis at patients thyrogenic diabetes can be formed. Content of glucose increases, frequent fervescences are possible.

At an easy current of a hyperthyroidism moderate weight loss, tachycardia within 100 beats per minute is observed, disturbances in work of glands, actually except a thyroid gland are not observed. The expressed weight loss, tachycardia in the range of 100-120 beats per minute, short-term changes of a cordial rhythm is characteristic of a moderately severe current of a hyperthyroidism. Gastrointestinal frustration, disturbances of an exchange of carbohydrates, decrease in level of cholesterol in blood are observed. Gradually signs of epinephral insufficiency accrue. The severe form of a thyrotoxicosis includes practically all above-mentioned signs.

Diagnosis of a hyperthyroidism

ГипертиреозSuspicion on a thyrotoxicosis, and statement of the diagnosis occur in the presence of clinical manifestations. Outward of the patient and data of laboratory researches are a sufficient reason for the diagnosis a hyperthyroidism. First of all define existence in blood of the increased level of thyroid hormones.

Diagnosis of a hyperthyroidism also includes ultrasonic research of a thyroid gland. It gives the chance to define existence in body of nodal educations and to establish the disease which became the hyperthyroidism reason. Also the ECG for definition of disturbances in work of warmly vascular system caused by a thyrotoxicosis is appointed.

Often if necessary the computer tomography is appointed, layer-by-layer pictures of a thyroid gland allow to reveal exact localization of consolidations. On the basis of these indications the doctor-endocrinologist appoints a course of treatment.

From laboratory researches the general blood test, and also the analysis is appointed to the content of hormones. At statement of the diagnosis the large role is played by data on the diseases postponed earlier, especially that at which operative measures were applied. It is important and accepted to know what drugs the patient or accepts at the moment. Full medical examination is without fail appointed.

Treatment of a hyperthyroidism

In treatment of a hyperthyroidism the integrated approach is applied, the diet, balneotherapy and other physiotherapeutic procedures is appointed. The patient has to be under careful supervision of the endocrinologist. Treatment of a hyperthyroidism at initial easy stages has more favorable forecast, the risk of serious violations in work of other bodies decreases and in advance complications of a hyperthyroidism are stopped.

Three techniques of treatment of a hyperthyroidism practice, the choice of a method is influenced by many factors. As a rule, the main indicators are the age of the patient, type of disturbances, a form of a course of a thyrotoxicosis, existence of allergic reactions to medicamentous drugs, associated diseases.

Conservative treatment of a hyperthyroidism is more effective at an initial stage of development of a thyrotoxicosis. This method is directed to decrease of the activity of a thyroid gland and production of hormones. Anti-thyroid drugs are appointed, they interfere with receipt and accumulation in a thyroid gland of iodine thanks to which thyroid hormones are produced. Thus, work of gland is considerably slowed down.

ГипертиреозThe surgical method of treatment is applied in the presence in iron of the single node causing its superactivity. Also surgical intervention is shown at growth of a separate site of a thyroid gland. During removal of a small site of fabrics of gland its work is normalized, further functioning quite stable. If these diagnoses indicate growth of a big site or a multinodal craw, surgical treatment contraindicated otherwise develops a hypothyroidism – a state opposite to a hyperthyroidism.

Along with traditional methods of treatment the alternative method is applied. Treatment of a hyperthyroidism radioiodine. Radioyodoterapiya consists in a single dose of a capsule or aqueous solution in contents which there is a radioiodine. With a blood flow drug reaches the cells of a thyroid gland having the biggest activity and collects in them, gradually damaging cells. Process happens over few weeks. Under the influence of a radioiodine the sizes of a thyroid gland considerably decrease, its activity respectively decreases, and the level of hormones in blood goes down to normal indicators.

Treatment by a radioyodoterapiya does not give a guarantee of an absolute recovery, repeated administration of drug in certain cases is required. Side effect of reception of a radioiodine development of a hypothyroidism. In that case replacement therapy which lasts all life of the patient is required. Drugs with the content of thyroid hormones are appointed, their daily use gives the chance to support the normal level of hormones in an organism.

Complications of a hyperthyroidism

In the absence of treatment or the heavy course of a thyrotoxicosis there is a danger of development of complications. Most often thyrocardiac crisis, as a rule, crisis arises at serious associated diseases or not a treated Bazedovy illness. At thyrocardiac crisis hyperthyroidism signs sharply amplify, symptoms become aggravated, disturbances in work of other bodies violently develop. Complication happens to a thicket at women, crisis develops in 70% of cases in an acute severe form.

Prevention of a hyperthyroidism

For prevention of a hyperthyroidism it is regularly necessary to pass surveys at the endocrinologist. Favorable impact on strengthening of a thyroid gland has a hardening. The food allowance has to be vitamin-rich and minerals. It is necessary to control reasonably iodine reception, the use of iodinated products has to be balanced. It is moderated it is necessary to acquire also a tan, to sunbathe, visit a sunbed. Often myths about usefulness of these or those procedures and products lead to disturbances in functioning of a thyroid gland which have serious consequences.

Section: Endocrinology