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September 20, 2011
The hypophysis is a roundish education by the size all a little more polugramm who is located in a wedge-shaped bone pocket on the lower surface of a brain and about a hypothalamus. The hypophysis produces hormones which regulate reproductive function of an organism, a metabolism, and also is responsible for activity of endocrine system. Such hormones there are about 9 pieces. On the one hand, the hypophysis independently regulates some processes in an organism (for example, growth), and on the other hand makes impact on other glands of endocrine system of an organism therefore they also produce necessary hormones, for example, estrogen.
It is closely connected with a hypothalamus, and is the center of endocrine system. The size of a hypophysis is defined strictly individually and can vary from 5 to 13 mm and usually does not exceed the pea size.
The hypophysis consists of three parts. A lobby (occupies more than a half of mass of all body) and intermediate parts represent ferruterous fabric, the back part is an outgrowth of nervous tissue. Each of shares emits own hormones and, in fact, is separate gland.
In combination with neurosecretory kernels of a hypothalamus this brain appendage forms the gipotalamo-pituitary system which is completely controlling endocrine activity of an organism.
Functions of a hypophysis
Considering the considerable amount of hormones produced by various shares of a hypophysis it is possible to assume easily that functions this site of a brain carries out much. Prolactin stimulates functions and development of mammary glands, follicle-stimulating hormone is responsible for growth of follicles of an ovary, luteinizing hormone controls an ovulation, the steroidogenesis, thyritropic hormone provides release of yodosoderzhashchy hormones, melanocyte stimulating hormone normalizes a melanin exchange in an organism, lipotropin – a lipometabolism, etc. Thus, through a large amount of hormones the hypophysis carries out a set of zhiznennovazhny functions therefore at pathological failures in its work also life activity of an organism can be broken considerably.
Laying of a hypophysis at an embryo occurs on the 5th week of development. Each share is formed of separate bookmarks.
M. A. Bulgakov in the novel "Heart of a Dog" described history when professor does change of a hypophysis to find out its influence on rejuvenation. As a result, he came to a conclusion that this site of a brain is responsible for outward, and, perhaps, for personal qualities.
The experiments made on a hypophysis of animals the huge number was made. For example, to removal of this gland at juveniles led to the termination of growth and puberty. At adults the atrophy of adrenal glands and a thyroid gland, involution of generative organs was observed. At the same time, in case of injections of the substances produced by a hypophysis, growth was observed much more active, than has to be: animals grew to the huge sizes, and puberty came even, despite young age.