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Helminthosis (worms) are a process of migration of larvae of worms in a human body then in intestines adult worms develop. At the patient owing to similar infection with parasites the expressed abdominal syndrome and allergic reaction develops.
Today many parasites capable to infect a human body are known. In total there are about 150 types of helminthoses. Most often there is infection of the person with pinworms, a soliter, lyambliya, ascarids. All of them differ among themselves, however cause similar symptoms in the patient. So, ascarids — roundworms who can reach enough big sizes. The female can grow to 20-40 cm, and the male of an ascarid reaches 15-25 cm. Worms can live in a human body about a year.
Pinworms — the small roundworms (females reach 12 mm, males — 4 mm) provoking developing of an itch in an anus. Soliter is the flat worm reaching sometimes up to 2 m in length.
Today there are data of World Health Organization that parasitic diseases affected about 90% of people in the world. At the same time the level of their life has no the defining value. The ascaridosis is recognized as the most eurysynusic helminthosis.
Reasons of emergence of worms
Worms at children and adults parasitize most often in a small bowel. In days they allocate about two hundred thousand eggs which get to environment with excrements. If eggs of worms appear in the warm soil, then conditions for their maturing are created almost ideal. Approximately in a month from eggs there are larvae of worms then getting to a human body with dirty vegetables, fruit or because of dirty hands. Flies also transfer on pads of egg of worms that promotes their penetration into a human body.
After hit of larvae of worms in intestines they begin to move ahead on circulatory system, at the same time damaging walls of veins and a mucous membrane. Further worms disperse on an organism, in a liver, the right auricle, the lower vena cava. But also it is not a limit. Sometimes worms by hit through a pulmonary artery and capillaries appear even in alveoluses.
Because of cough of a larva quickly move to bronchial tubes. At the same time with saliva they get into a gastrointestinal tract.
Development of worms happens thanks to the fact that as their food serves plasma and erythrocytes. After some time of migration on a human body worms appear in a small bowel, reaching a maturity there.
Symptoms of infection with worms
Since infection and before the first manifestations of symptoms of worms, as a rule, there pass 1-2 months. After that at the patient explicit symptoms of worms begin to be shown. Owing to damage of airways there is short wind, constant cough, rashes on integuments, the general weakness and low temperature. As a rule, patients complain of a condition of constant weakness and an indisposition, a headache, low ability to work. In more exceptional cases available a picture of pulmonary pathology of which cough at which there are impurity of a phlegm and elements of blood, a stethalgia, an asthma is characteristic. When listening at the patient define rattles, the phenomena of exudative pleurisy.
Worms can provoke developing of heavy pneumonia of an askaridozny etiology. At some patients at an early stage of an ascaridosis disturbances in activity of cardiovascular system, in work of a liver are observed.
If the ascaridosis passed into a chronic form, then symptoms of worms are shown by disturbances in work of a digestive tract. There is pain in a stomach, problems with a chair, nausea, a sleep disorder and increased fatigue.
At the patients infected with worms appetite loss often is observed, and worms at children provoke so-called "whimsical appetite". At the same time department of saliva at patients very strong. Perhaps also manifestation of ponos, locks, these phenomena can often alternate. Worms at children provoke pain in a stomach, abdominal distention. Sometimes children complain of feelings of movement inside. Often in the presence of worms the painful palpation of a stomach is observed. The child quickly grows thin.
Presence of worms causes a number of symptoms from a nervous system in children. At them memory can decrease, be observed strong absent-mindedness, a troubled sleep with twitchings and nightmares, headaches. In more exceptional cases there are hysterics, lowering of intelligence.
At an intestinal ascaridosis, as well as in its first phase, allergic manifestations take place. Arterial and venous pressure can go down.
In view of a high physical activity of worms sometimes at patients with an intestinal ascaridosis impassability of intestines, an ascaridosis of a liver and pancreas, infection with worms of respiratory tracts is observed.
At askaridozny impassability of intestines of the patient complains of sharp skhvatkoobrazny pain in a stomach, nausea, abdominal distention, the expressed peristaltics of guts, a chair delay, feeling of a tumor in an abdominal cavity.
If worms get into a gall bladder and channels, the patient has a mechanical jaundice. At an ascaridosis of a liver and bilious channels the patient complains of terebrant pains in the field of the right hypochondrium, vomiting, the increased liver. In certain cases ascarids can be allocated during vomiting.
Besides, presence of worms in a human body considerably burdens different diseases, first of all, infectious. They proceed longer period, recurrence and complications often develop. So, presence of worms considerably complicates the course of conjunctivitis, tuberculosis, skin diseases and other illnesses. Worms are extremely negatively reflected in the course of pregnancy, aggravating toxicosis and provoking problems in fetation.
Diagnosis of worms
To define how to get rid of worms, it is necessary to carry out the correct diagnosis, first of all. Presence of worms in a human body confirms their removal with a stake or at vomiting. Detection of larvae of worms in a phlegm will also be confirmation of this diagnosis. However diagnosis of an ascaridosis is carried out, mainly, by laboratory analyses. During laboratory diagnosis the analysis a calla on existence of eggs of ascarids and the analysis a calla after diagnostic deworming is carried out. Immunological research also allows to reveal worms. It is based on identification of specific antibodies to worms. Early diagnosis of an illness allows to cure an illness in time and by that to provide protection against manifestation of various complications.
Treatment of worms
Mainly treatment of worms is made by appointment of anthelmintic medicamentous means as the patient. A pill for worms is taken often in parallel with other drugs. Additional resources at treatment of worms at children and adults are also widely used: it is reception of polyvitamins, fermental drugs, a proteinaceous diet.
However to define how to get rid of worms most effectively, it is necessary to visit immediately the specialist at the first suspicion on infection with an illness.
On an early phase a disease of the patient often appoint reception of a mintezol (a tablet from worms). However at development of an intestinal ascaridosis medicine for worms will be already other: in this case apply Dekaris (Levamisole), Kombantrinum (Pyrantelum), Mebendazolum (Vermoxum). All specified tablets from worms work with efficiency from 80 to 100%. These means cannot be accepted during pregnancy.
Often treatment of worms demands acceptance of more radical measures. So, the immediate surgery is required in case of a blockage of a gleam of a small bowel by a ball of ascarids and emergence of impassability. An operative measure is made at a long spasm of a small bowel owing to presence of a dead ascarid, the acute appendicitis caused by a blockage worms of a worm-shaped shoot, blockage worms of bilious ways, perforations of a wall of intestines worms there.
For treatment of worms use also oxygen which is entered to the patient through a gastric tube. To define how effective was treatment of worms at children and adults, it is necessary to conduct three weeks later triple research of excrements. If in the analysis worms are found repeatedly, then the specialist defines how to get rid of worms, offering the new scheme of treatment based on use of other drugs for worms.
Treatment of worms folk remedies
Except traditional therapy as medicine for worms widely apply also some folk remedies. The known folk remedy from worms which is used for prevention of their emergence is lemons. They are recommended to be used as often as possible. It is desirable for both children, and adults to use often and seeds of pumpkin which are considered as efficient means both for prevention, and for treatment of worms. Other folk remedies from worms which well proved in the course of treatment of an ascaridosis it is a wormwood, birch kidneys, the grated carrots boiled in milk. Very small children can suggest to accept on a hungry stomach juice and carrots with addition of a lemon and honey. Also the benefit will be brought by several leaves of a sorrel. It is desirable to eat them every day.
Prevention of worms
Effective prevention of worms has to include the whole package of measures. Early detection and the subsequent treatment of the infested patients, protection of the soil from pollution by excrements, permanent sanitary and educational job among people is important. It is impossible to apply excrements as fertilizer at all. In the centers of intensive infection surely twice a year as prevention of worms mass deworming is carried out
Also personal prevention of worms is not less important. There is a number of rules which should be observed strictly to warn infection. Without fail before acceptance of food it is necessary to wash hands, berries, vegetable, fruit it is necessary to wash carefully before they get on a table. The last especially concerns those products which do not pass heat treatment.
Infection with worms of children is important to warn. For this purpose it is necessary to watch carefully hygiene of the child, not to allow it to swallow water from open reservoirs during bathing, to watch purity of domestic animals with whom the child closely communicates. The first symptoms of infection with worms have to become a signal for the immediate address to the doctor.