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October 26, 2011
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Gonorrhea (from the Greek term "gonorrhoia" for the first time used by the doctor Galen in "expiration of a seed" value) – the infectious venereal disease transmitted, as a rule, sexually.
The disease is caused special by microorganisms – Neicer's gonokokka or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Neicer opened gonokokk in 1879. Gonorrhea is especially widespread among people in young active age, annually in the world more than 200 million people get sick with gonorrhea. The ratio of women and men sick with gonorrhea makes, according to researches, 2:1,5. At a disease of gonorrhea there is a defeat mucous generative organs, is more rare – an eye, almonds, a rectum.
In case of the started gonorrhea vitals – heart, lungs, a brain are surprised. Gonococcal sepsis can even develop. Such complications of gonorrhea demand immediate treatment. Sources of a disease are patients with gonorrhea. Girls can catch gonorrhea also through the infected towels, basts, diapers, dirty hands.
Allocate such forms of gonorrhea: fresh if the disease lasts less than 2 months which in turn happens acute, subacute, torpid, and also chronic, i.e. lasting more than two months.
Infection occurs during sexual intercourse, and the disease is told both at vaginal, and at proctal, and at oral sex. Women get sick practically in all cases of contacts with the patient with gonorrhea, and men – not always that is connected with narrowness of an opening of an urethra. There is infection with a contact way, for example, from mother to a disease to the child, during passing by a fruit of patrimonial ways significantly less often.
In end of the short description we will discredit one of widespread myths. As gonokokk live only on mucous, and out of it most often perish therefore to catch gonorrhea in the pool though perhaps theoretically, but it is improbable.
Usually the incubation interval of a disease to last from 2 to 5 days at men and 5-10 days at women.
The main symptoms of gonorrhea at the man are:
- acute pain and burning sensation at an urination;
- yellowish allocations from a channel of an urethra spontaneous or when pressing;
- the speeded-up desires to an urination;
- urethra erubescence around an outside opening;
- urine opacification, in it "flakes" or blood are observed;
- the erection can be painful;
- sometimes temperature rises, the fever appears.
In the absence of treatment, the infection extends to a prostate and testicles.
Gonorrhea symptoms at women:
- frequent pains in the bottom of a stomach;
- irregular lurid dense allocations from a vagina, sometimes with an unpleasant smell;
- frequent desires to an urination;
- bleedings between periods;
- the fever, temperature increase is possible.
Gonococcal pharyngitis and stomatitis is followed by a pharyngalgia, throat hypostasis, a purulent plaque on almonds and plentiful salivation, and a gonococcal proctitis – an itch and rectum pain, locks, sometimes – allocations. If gonokokk are brought in a conjunctiva of eyes, then can begin blennoreya, accompanied with purulent discharges from eyes.
It should be noted that almost a half of women has no gonorrhea symptoms therefore it is better to see a doctor even if the person just had an opportunity to catch. Besides, at women gonorrheal process develops multifocally and affects at the same time an urethra, a neck of uterus and a rectum.
At girls of 3-8 years gonorrhea can be shown because of various sources of an infection – dirty hands, objects of a toilet and household objects. The illness causes hypostasis and reddening of vulvar lips and a crotch, burning and a constant itch in a crotch, and also unpleasant feelings or an urodynia. The illness postponed at children's age can become the reason of an irregularity of a menstrual cycle, sexual frustration, even infertility.
Rather often gonorrhea proceeds at women without the main symptoms and if they also were shown, then allocations identify as the milkwoman, and urodynias – as cystitis.
Diagnosis of gonorrhea
The doctor diagnoses gonorrhea on the basis of acquaintance with complaints of the patient, survey and a palpation of generative organs, results of the general smear of the vagina, urethra separated from eyes, survey of an anus, urine analysis findings. Sexual activity of the patient, the last sexual contacts, emergence of allocations from an urethra becomes clear and also whether had earlier venereal diseases.
If the patient did not use disinfectants, the bakterioskopichesky analysis can be appointed. At early stages of an illness, i.e. at "fresh" gonorrhea, the method of a direct immunofluorescence allowing to reveal in addition other possible venereal diseases is effective. Before the main treatment analyses on clamidiosis, AIDS, syphilis are also carried out. In case of chronic gonorrhea more exact research — PTsR, polimerazny chain reaction or crops is appointed.
Treatment of gonorrhea
It is obligatory that treatment of a disease was carried out by the venereologist in the conditions of a hospital. Usually the doctor appoints a complex of procedures which promote recovery of the patient. Here antibiotics, topical treatment, means for strengthening of immunity and physical therapy methods enter.
Antibiotics which are applied at treatment of gonorrhea belong to penicillinic group – ampicillin, sulatsillin, benzylpenicillin. Also the antibiotics carrying to tetracyclines – tetracycline, doxycycline, metronidazole, sometimes azaleads (azithromycin, midekamitsin), cephalosporins and some other can be used. The immunotherapy is applied to increase of immunity and body resistance of an infection, in this case vaccinotherapy, an autohemotherapy, Prodigiosanum, Levamisole, Glycyrramum, taktivin can be appointed. The electrophoresis, a magnetotherapy, laser therapy, UVCh, Ural federal district belong to physiotherapeutic methods of treatment of gonorrhea.
Topical treatment of gonorrhea is carried out by introduction to a vagina or an urethra of solution of Protargol (0,5%), microclysters with tincture a camomile. The disease at timely treatment recovers quickly enough, and otherwise it can pass into a chronic form. During treatment of the patient has to adhere to the recommended diet, not take alcohol. It is impossible to play sports, it is necessary to exclude the sexual intercourses.
If the illness is combined with clamidiosis or trichomoniasis, then treatment of gonorrhea is followed by use of medicines from the accompanying infections – azithromycin, doxycycline. Since antibiotics practically always promote destruction of normal intestinal microflora, at the same time sick also bifidosoderzhashchy drugs register lakto-(Lineks, Bifilong).
It is necessary to notice that self-treatment of a gonococcal infection usually leads to chronic gonorrhea and other irreversible complications. So at the first symptoms of a disease or at emergence of any unpleasant feelings in the field of generative organs it is necessary, as soon as possible to address the specialist.
At treatment of chronic gonorrhea there is a destruction actually of an infection, and also the drugs strengthening immunity, for example, vitamins and immunomodulatory drugs are appointed.
If the disease passed into a chronic form, then the main symptoms of gonorrhea can disappear, pains will pass, however there will be "a syndrome of a morning drop", and. release of muddy liquid from an opening of an urethral tubule. The exacerbations of a disease caused by overcooling, periods are often observed.
At timely treatment forecasts favorable. Gonorrhea is considered cured if disease symptoms completely disappeared, and laboratory analyses yielded a negative take and showed lack of the activator.
Prevention of gonorrhea
Main type of prevention of this dangerous disease is timely diagnosing and treatment of diseases. For this purpose it is necessary to pass medical examinations in district clinic including survey of the urologist regularly. By the way, the pregnant women having trichomoniasis, and also those who are going to interrupt pregnancy are exposed to obligatory survey.
Personal prevention of gonorrhea consists in an exception of accidental sexual bonds, and obligatory use of a condom. If accidental sexual contact happened, then it is recommended to address as soon as possible in a venereologic clinic or point of personal prevention working at it for implementation of necessary measures to avoid development of a disease.
Complications of gonorrhea
Among complications at the started gonorrhea at men it is possible to call disturbance of a spermatogenesis, an inflammation of a penis and an internal leaf extremely of flesh, and also defeat of a small egg and its appendage an orchitis, an epididymite or prostatitis that can lead to infertility. At the woman the inflammation extends in a uterus (endometritis), uterine tubes, and further – in ovaries and appendages (salpingo-oophoritis) that can lead to infertility, and also to various sexual frustration, frigidity, development of an extrauterine pregnancy.
If the pregnant woman caught gonorrhea, then the abortion, and also premature births, death of a fruit is probable. Gonorrhea is especially dangerous to newborn children at whom the diseases of eyes leading to a blindness can be shown. If gonokokk extended to other bodies, then such serious diseases as damage of joints, hearts, skin and a brain are possible.
For prevention, it is necessary to follow the basic rules of personal hygiene, especially after a toilet, to regularly wash generative organs water with soap. It is necessary to notice that at timely treatment and observance of all recommendations of the doctor of complications of a disease it is possible to avoid.
Section: Andrology (Man's diseases) Gynecology