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Hormones are active chemicals which cosecrete endocrine system of an organism. Hormones make many-sided and difficult impact on all human body, and also on certain bodies and fabrics. Hormones of the person are humoral, that is are transferred by blood. They serve as peculiar regulators at which disturbance of activity in an organism there are serious functional failures for this reason the hormonal system of an organism has to be accurately adjusted. For the first time started talking about existence of hormones in 1902.
Gland represents body which allocates or produces certain substances. Glands producing hormones is the following:
- Hypophysis (oxytocin, prolactin, melanocyte stimulating hormone)
- Hypothalamus (dopamine, "growth hormone")
- Testicles (testosterone, androstendiol)
- Ovaries (androstendiol)
- Placenta (lactogen)
- Pancreas (insulin, gastrin, glucagon, vasoactive intestinal peptide)
- Thyroid gland (triiodothyronine, calcitonin, thyroxine)
- Liver (angiotensin, angiotensinogen)
- Kidneys (erythropoetin, calcitriol)
- Adrenal glands (Aldosteronum, adrenaline, cortisol), etc.
Except closed glands, production of hormones is made also by some sites of body tissues. Such hormones call fabric, they are responsible for insulin secretion, allocation of a gastric juice, system of digestion.
Today, the science still completely did not study all hormones, bodies and fabrics which produce them. The pinus, for example, to these remains object of dispute of many specialists who ask a question whether it is worth carrying it to glands of endocrine system.
Development by glands of hormones is made directly in blood thanks to what hormones "reach" the necessary body or fabric. For an exact dosage of hormones the difficult mechanism of control which helps to avoid insufficient or excess hormonal level is provided in an organism. If gland which produced hormone, notes its too high level in blood, secretion is slowed down up to production of substances-converters. When the level of hormones falls, gland is activated and begins to make more these substances.
The role of each hormone in an organism is strictly defined, and the influence has each appearance. Insulin, for example, influences sugar level in blood, its specific role also consists in it.
Speed of effect of hormone different for each look. For example, the growth hormone is hormone of slow regulation, but injection of adrenaline in blood provides almost immediate reaction.
Principle of action
After these active agents get to blood and reach the target, they begin to interact with certain receptors. Each receptor suits "the" hormone, thus the gormono-receptor complex is under construction.
Hormones are data carriers: reaching the destination, they signal that this or that process has to be started.
For maintenance of constant concentration of level of hormones they regularly collect in a liver then are brought out of an organism, for example, with urine.
The most important role in secretion of hormones is played by a hypothalamus and a hypophysis – they develop a huge amount of hormones which are responsible for basic human wants.
So everything difficult developed in hormonal system that there are hormones which regulate secretion of other hormones. Neurohormones, namely neuromediators which are developed in department of a diencephalon concern to them. They control production of hormones of incretion and a hypophysis. Noradrenaline – the main neurohormone, it regulates nervous system and hearts, and also is a predecessor of adrenaline.
Hormones and immunity
Thymus it is possible by the right to call the central body of immune system of an organism. It is located behind a breast. Lymphocytes which are in this gland take part in the processes connected with immunity of an organism: they come to a spleen and lymph nodes where there is a fight against alien bodies. The thymus also cosecretes hormones, but their action still remains up to the end not studied, but it is known precisely – these hormones are the important regulator of immune system of an organism, allegedly, that they also are differentiation catalysts (the directions of an immune cell against the activator) and maturing of lymphocytes.
The analysis on concentration of hormones
Practically all processes in an organism, anyway, are connected with hormones — powerful bioactive agents. Disturbance of a hormonal background of a human body can bring to serious to effects for internals, and also for a state of health in general. The weight, mood, a condition of hair and skin also considerably depend on concentration of hormones in blood. For this reason on the analysis any doctor can write out the direction.
During pregnancy blood test on hormones is made surely as its indicators show a clear picture of a state of health both mother, and child. During pregnancy the following hormones surely are given: progesterone, estrogen, chorionic gonadotrophin, chorionic somatomammotrophin, mineralokortikoida, glucocorticoids, prolactin, etc.
Material for the analysis is the venous blood. Blood sampling is carried out strictly on an empty stomach, a day before delivery it is necessary to limit reception of iodinated drugs, alcoholic beverages, to refuse strong exercise stresses and if the analysis is carried out in the morning – that also from food, that is strictly on an empty stomach, in several hours it is desirable to refuse smoking.
When studying the analysis on hormones, it is necessary to consider that these substances are closely connected with each other. The lowered level of one hormone, can conduct to the lowered level of five others, and it is worth recovering its normal concentration, as well as all hormonal background can be normalized.