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Flu at children
Flu is an illness of infectious character which is very infectious and, as a rule, proceeds sharply. The main symptoms of flu at children and at adults is existence of symptoms of intoxication, and also damage of upper airways.
The flu reasons at children
Flu received the name from the French word grippe designating "to grab". However throughout the long period flu was called epidemic rheum (in Latin this word designates "to interfere"). The English scientists in 1933 learned that flu has the virus nature. Causative agents of flu are viruses which belong to family of orthomyxoviruses and are intracellular parasites. They are subdivided into independent types: And, In, Page.
Causative agents of flu show high sensitivity to influences from the outside: they perish by the light of direct sunshine, under the influence of formalin, ultrasound. Infectivity of viruses very quickly disappears at a temperature of 60 °C.
The illness has a wide circulation, the epidemichnost is characteristic of it. As a rule, at first flu affects adults then, through a certain period, also flu at children is shown.
In most cases flu epidemics arise in a cold season. Explain this feature of distribution of an illness with overcooling, and also avitaminosis which is shown at people in the winter and simplifies process of emergence of new combinations of an influenza virus And.
Carrier of an influenza virus is the person, the patient with this illness. The probability of infection exists for the last days of an incubation interval and during the feverish period of an illness. Level of concentration of a virus decreases in air which is exhaled by the patient, approximately after the fifth day of an illness. From now on the carrier of a virus is not dangerous to the people surrounding it any more.
The most serious danger is constituted by people who got sick with the erased and subclinical forms of an illness. They continue to conduct usual life, to remain in the movement, and at the same time infect many people who have with them contact. Children generally catch flu from adults.
The infection of flu is transmitted to the person only in the airborne way. When the person sick with flu sneezes, talks, coughs, the virus in big concentration is allocated from mucous respiratory tracts. At the same time for several minutes it can be in a suspension in the form of aerosols. In more exceptional cases the infection can pass to the person through household objects, toys, ware, linen.
Babies are even susceptible to flu. After the person had flu, in an organism immunity to this type of a virus forms. However repeatedly the person can catch already other serovariant of an influenza virus.
Flu symptoms at children
Flu at children is shown after an incubation interval which proceeds from several hours to several days. The illness always begins sharply: at the child temperature rises, reaching very high rates (to 40 °C). The patient complains of a fever, the general weakness, dizziness, muscle and joints pains. To a maximum level temperature increases at the end of the first day of a disease, in more exceptional cases – for the second day. To the child the head in temples, a forehead, eyeglobes hurts, he refuses to eat, sleeps badly. The sick child can sometimes rave, he has hallucinations, vomiting and nausea is shown. Also at patients with flu of children poorly expressed catarral phenomena can be shown: a tussiculation, a congestion of a nose and small allocations from it, morbidity and feeling of irritation in a throat which amplifies during swallowing. If the course of a disease heavy, frequent nasal bleedings, a loss of consciousness for short time, spasms, symptoms of meningeal type are possible. During survey the doctor, as a rule, states a serious condition of the child sick with flu. At flu the pronounced hyperemia of the person, cyanosis of lips an injection of vessels, scleras is observed. There is a reddening of different degree on palatine tonsils, handles. In certain cases on a back wall of a throat dot hemorrhages develop. At the child skin turns pale, the increased perspiration is observed, the stomach sometimes hurts and frustration of a chair take place. At the same time at the child arterial pressure decreases.
As specific display of flu manifestation of a segmented fluid lungs is possible. This phenomenon – a consequence of circulator frustration in one share or a segment of a lung. This symptom can be found only during X-ray inspection, clinically it is not shown.
If flu at children is shown in a hypertoxical form, then a symptom is the hemorrhagic fluid lungs which, as a rule, comes to an end with developing of hemorrhagic pneumonia. In view of influenzal intoxication there are changes in lungs owing to high-permeability of capillaries. This manifestation is followed by rattles and an asthma. In the course of treatment and, respectively, reduction of influenzal intoxication these phenomena decrease. But children at early age sometimes have an accession of secondary microflora, and development of virus and bacterial pneumonia as a result begins. The feverish period of flu proceeds about five days. After that body temperature sharply falls, and the child begins to feel much better. Sometimes body temperature increases repeatedly, however such manifestations become result of stratification of bacterial flora or a viral respiratory infection. The illness at the child to last about ten days. The postinfectious adynamy remains on an extent of several weeks after the postponed illness. In such state the child can feel weakness, complain of a bad dream, high level of fatigue.
Classification of flu at children
There is a classification of flu according to which the easy, medium-weight, severe (toxic) and hypertoxical form is allocated. Determine weight by existence and weight of the general symptoms of intoxication.
Flu benign proceeds with normal body temperature, the symptoms testimonial of intoxication are also absent. At the same time at the child only the catarral phenomena can be shown: small cold, periodic tussiculation.
Flu in a medium-weight form is expressed by existence of all symptoms of influenzal intoxication. At the patient the headache, a fever, dizziness is shown, body temperature increases approximately up to 39,5 °C. Development of segmented pneumonia is possible. At flu in a severe form influenzal intoxication is shown by even more expressed signs. The sick child can periodically have a nonsense, the darkened consciousness, hallucinations, vomiting, spasms. Temperature increases up to 40,5 °C. As complications perhaps of disturbance of activity of cardiovascular system, it is purulent - a necrotic laryngotracheobronchitis, hemorrhagic hypostasis of a lung.
At a hypertoxical form of flu hemorrhagic, meningoentsefalichesky, hyper thermal syndromes are shown.
Besides, flu at children sometimes passes in the latent form. Externally the child looks completely healthy, however in laboratory analyses increase of an antiserum capacity to an influenza virus is noted. The similar state can be found only at laboratory research. Toxic and hypertoxical forms of a disease are most often shown at children of the first year of life.
There are certain features which are characteristic of the course of flu at children of the first year of life, and also at newborns. At such children the illness often begins to progress gradually. It begins with small increase of body temperature, symptoms of influenzal intoxication either are poorly expressed, or are absent in general. The child turns pale, refuses a breast, his weight can decrease. In certain cases flu is shown by the insignificant catarral phenomena – the child coughs, snuffles a nose in view of its congestion. Vomiting is also possible. It is important to consider that the illness at children of the first year of life proceeds hard, despite the lack of visible pronounced symptoms. Flu is aggravated with accession of a bacterial infection, and also the subsequent purulent complications.
Flu at children of an age group from 1 to 3 flyings is expressed by especially heavy symptoms. Organism intoxication very strong, defeat of the central nervous system, manifestation of a meningoentsefalitichesky syndrome is possible. At children at this age at flu the expressed catarral phenomena take place. Accession of damage of lungs, an asthmatic syndrome, croup syndrome is possible. Also after flu children often have complications in view of what prevention of flu at children has paramount value.
Except the described forms at the child inborn flu can be shown. The fruit is surprised in this case not only in view of influence of an influenza virus, but also because of severe toxicosis, influence of toxic metabolites, a hypoxia and other phenomena which are negatively influencing a fruit.
Displays of inborn flu are almost completely similar to the course of flu at newborns. Symptoms of influenzal intoxication are not observed, body temperature can be normal, the catarral phenomena moderate. However flu is, as a rule, burdened by stratification of a bacterial infection. In certain cases at inborn flu display of hypostasis and paralysis of a respiratory center is possible.
Complications of flu at children
Complications of flu can be shown both in development of an illness, and after it. Most often as complication of flu at children the laryngotracheobronchitis, otitis, an inflammation of adnexal bosoms, pneumonia is shown. Complications of flu always arise as result of stratification of bacterial flora on an influenzal infection.
The laryngotracheobronchitis becomes heavy complication for children of age. This disease is frequent it is shown by a croup syndrome. Besides, flu is dangerous by a possibility of manifestation of neurologic complications: meningitis, encephalitis, encephalomeningitis. In more exceptional cases the child has complication of flu neuritis, neuralgia, polyradiculoneurites. In this case a thicket children of younger age are exposed to complications. In the period of an acute state at flu functional disturbances in work of cardiovascular system are possible, however after recovery of the child these manifestations disappear. Myocarditis is in rare instances possible.
Diagnosis of flu at children
Diagnosis of flu at children is based on existence of symptoms of a disease. At survey of the child the doctor surely considers the current epidemic situation. As the main diagnostic method laboratory researches are conducted. In this case two groups of methods are used. First, the virus is found with use of virologic techniques that is the most effective in the first days of an illness. Secondly, definition of reaction of an organism on the implemented activator is carried out, that is existence of protective antibodys in blood is found.
To diagnose inborn flu, it is necessary to establish existence of an illness at mother before childbirth and existence of symptoms of an illness at the newborn. Regarding existence of an influenza virus it is possible to check amniotic waters, washout from a nasopharynx of the child and mother.
It is important to differentiate flu with other types of a SARS at which damage of upper airways takes place. Early diagnosis of flu allows to begin treatment of flu at children in time and to avoid emergence of complications.
Treatment of flu at children
The correct treatment of flu at children provides observance by the patient of a bed rest in the conditions of the maximum isolation. Most often treatment of flu is made out of a hospital, however the children having the severe and hypertoxical form of flu should be hospitalized. In a hospital also treatment of complications of flu is carried out.
Specialists recommend to keep to a diet in the course of treatment. In a diet of the patient the vegetable, milk food, fruit, juice has to prevail, it is necessary to use a lot of liquid. Sick flu surely appoint reception of ascorbic acid or polyvitamins. Also symptomatic therapy is carried out: drugs for removal of pain, a hyperthermia are appointed. Treatment of flu at children in this case is carried out mainly with use of drugs on the basis of paracetamol.
Also therapy of this disease provides the use of means which promote a phlegm otkhozhdeniye. It is mallow tincture, Mucaltinum, a glycyrrhiza root, etc. Depending on expressiveness of cough antibechics can be appointed. Also children who already were two years old can carry out inhalations on the basis of infusions of medicinal herbs.
Today for treatment of flu also special antiviral drugs are used, however in each case the attending physician has to establish expediency of their use.
If at the child flu in a severe form develops, especially at hypertoxical to a flu form, then there is a possibility of a lethal outcome owing to wet brain or a lung. Also heavy bronchopulmonary complications which the gram-negative flora, staphylococcus causes, streptococci can be the cause of a lethal outcome. The croup complicated by a bacterial infection at diffusion it is purulent - necrotic process is also serious threat for the child's life.
Prevention of flu at children
Prevention of flu at children provides carrying out early diagnosis and, respectively, isolation of the patient. If the child observes a bed rest in house conditions, then it has to stay in separate, well and regularly aired room. It is desirable to use gauze bandages at service of the patient with flu of the child.
For a flu epidemic often stop occupation in children's collectives, study at school. In preschool institutions of children during raising of an incidence on flu daily examine the doctor. As means for prevention of flu at children often use interferon.
However the most effective method of prevention of flu is vaccination today. The flu inoculation to children is carried out with use, both the live, and inactivated vaccines. Today vaccines flyuariks, inflyuvak, begrivak are most often applied to carrying out an inoculation from flu to children, agripat, vaksigripp, grippol.
All these vaccines provide only short-term immunity therefore children need to repeat flu inoculations annually. Vaccination is carried out first of all to children who are included into risk groups. These are children of early age, and also children who attend preschool institutions, school. Children who often have a SARS have to receive inoculations; the children having chronic pulmonary diseases and heart diseases; those who receive immunodepressive therapy; the children suffering from hemoglobinopathies, anemia.
If for certain reasons vaccination cannot be done to the child from risk groups, then vaccination have to be exposed those who look after him. Children who are not included into the specified risk groups receive inoculations at the request of parents or according to the recommendation of the doctor.