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May 3, 2012
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Clamidiosis is a group of diseases which are provoked by Chlamydia trachomatis microorganism. These microorganisms called by chlamydias, motionless, very small also are in cells. Independently energy of a chlamydia is not synthesized, therefore, microorganisms parasitize in cells of a cylindrical epithelium which covers epididymes, channels of a prostate, seminiferous ways, an urethra, a neck of uterus, a vagina, the proctal channel, an oral cavity. There is a process of infection of cells with so-called elementary little bodies. They get to a cell where breed. In the course of reproduction of a cell create reticular little bodies. After some time (as a rule, in 72 hours) new elementary little bodies appear from reticular little bodies. Over time there is a considerable defeat of urinogenital system and other systems of an organism.
Sometimes, in more exceptional cases, owing to infection with chlamydias there is a damage of joints, conjunctivas of eyes, and also also other bodies can suffer. In this case at the person the so-called illness of Reuters takes place.
Prevalence of clamidiosis
Chlamydia – very small microorganism, therefore, in a usual microscope it cannot be considered. At the same time chlamydias have a number of properties which are inherent both in bacteria, and viruses. Today there are eighteen types a chlamydia trakhomatis. Some of them provoke developing of trachoma – very dangerous illness of eyes, others become the reason of a venereal lymphogranuloma, some more types of chlamydias cause diseases of urinogenital system, both in men, and in women.
Today clamidiosis is one of the most eurysynusic diseases in the world. So, in a year this microorganism infects about 140 million people in the world. Most often with it aged people from fifteen to twenty four years get sick.
As clamidiosis is transmitted
Incubation interval duration at clamidiosis makes, as a rule, from seven to twenty one days. Sometimes, rather seldom, this period can be reduced to several days. This time for which the disease-producing factor gets to a human body and the first symptoms of an illness are shown. Transfer of clamidiosis happens in the course of sexual contacts. Very seldom transfer of clamidiosis happens through household objects. Entrance gate for an infection are served by generative organs. Clamidiosis at men is shown after hit of an infection through an urethra surface. Get to a female organism of a chlamydia through an urethra and the channel of a neck of uterus. In most cases the disease begins to progress imperceptibly for the person infected with an infection. Clamidiosis does not provoke very often noticeable inflammatory reactions and can mask. Especially often there is a similar course of clamidiosis at women. And it is possible to find a disease already when people already have complications of a disease owing to which the patient also addresses the specialist. Therefore in the presence at the patient of complaints to discomfort in urinogenital system it is necessary to inspect surely it regarding existence of clamidiosis.
Very often at development of clamidiosis symptoms of this disease at the person in general are absent. However, rather often clamidiosis at men is shown by local inflammatory process mucous urinogenital system. At the same time the patient feels strong discomfort in an urethra, it can have both purulent discharges, and slime. Clamidiosis most often causes an urethritis, a vaginitis, a cervicitis in women. Clamidiosis which symptoms often bring to the woman notable discomfort it becomes frequent the reason of serious inflammations of bodies of a small pelvis and as a result can lead to infertility at women. The similar inflammation is fraught with problems with conception and incubation of pregnancy. So, or are ill women who were ill inflammations of a small pelvis, the extrauterine pregnancy is fixed approximately at 7-10 times more often than at healthy women. Besides, after the postponed inflammation the woman for the rest of life can have commissures of ovaries and uterine tubes which can provoke enough megalgia. One more important point for patients with clamidiosis is the fact that in connection with lowering of resistance to influence of infectious agents of a mucous membrane of urinogenital system the risk of infection with HIV infection in the course of sexual contacts considerably increases.
Besides, clamidiosis at pregnancy threatens with the fact that this disease is told from the woman to the baby in the course of childbirth that as a result leads to developing of Chlamidia pneumonia or conjunctivitis.
There is a number of the displays of clamidiosis characteristic of representatives of both floors. So, clamidiosis at women can provoke strong bleeding of a neck of uterus, allocation from a vagina which have mucopurulent character. At the woman sick with clamidiosis, illness symptoms can be also shown by bleeding during the period between periods. Besides, emergence of allocations from a neck of uterus, disturbances in the course of an urination, pain in the field of a stomach bottom is possible.
Clamidiosis at men is shown by emergence of mucous allocations from an urethra. Sometimes such allocations have pus impurity. In the course of an urination the man sick with clamidiosis often feels strong discomfort, desires to an urination at it become frequent, shown pain in the field of a scrotum, and also sensations of discomfort in a crotch.
Clamidiosis at children is shown most often by increase of desires to an urination, and also emergence both in girls, and in boys of allocations from generative organs and an itch in their area.
Complications of clamidiosis
Very often clamidiosis at men and at women is shown in parallel with other diseases which are transmitted sexually. It can be trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, a bacterial vaginosis, ureaplasmosis and other illnesses. As a result hlimidioz often is complicated by different diseases of an urinogenital path: cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis, orchitis, endometritis, etc. To diagnose complications of clamidiosis for men, transrectal ultrasonography of a prostate is very often applied.
However clamidiosis can provoke not only complications which concern generative organs, but also defeat of other systems and bodies. At an illness of Reuters at the patient Chlamidia conjunctivitis develops, besides, sometimes there is a damage of a backbone, knee, ankle, hip joints, reactive arthritis develops.
At women this infection can provoke an endometritis, impassability of fallopiyevy pipes, an extrauterine pregnancy.
Clamidiosis at pregnancy causes various complications in development of a fruit. Sometimes owing to this infection there are premature birth.
Besides, owing to clamidiosis manifestation of a proctitis – a rectum inflammation, and also pyelonephritis, pharyngitis, pneumonia is possible.
Diagnosis of clamidiosis
Today diagnosis of clamidiosis is made with use of different methods of inspection. However the most widely applied analysis for this time is PTsR technique – so-called polimerazny chain reaction. When using this method at the patient material which contains activator DNA undertakes. In the course of research of material polymerase enzyme is used. This research guarantees high precision and speed.
The cultural diagnostic method of a disease is highly sensitive. Material of the patient which contains chlamydias is placed in a medium with living cells. This way of diagnosis is not applied to wide use in connection with its relative high cost.
Besides, the immunofluorescent method at which the material taken from the patient is subjected to processing by special structure in which there are antibodies to chlamydias is applied to diagnosis of clamidiosis. A shortcoming given by method is its not really high precision — about 80%. When using a cytologic diagnostic method coloring of the cells taken from the patient and their the subsequent identifications by means of a light microscope is made.
The serological method consists in identification in blood of the patient of antibodies to chlamydias. However this method is not informative as about a half of people with clamidiosis of urinogenital system in view of the localized character of an infection do not form an antibody to chlamydias. Also detection of antibodies can be the certificate that the person had clamidiosis earlier.
Treatment of clamidiosis
It is very important that treatment of clamidiosis was made at both sexual partners. It is important to use a different approach to treatment of a chronic and fresh illness. So, if it is about fresh forms of clamidiosis, then it is necessary to make its treatment taking into account where defeat is localized. If the chronic form of a disease takes place, then without fail to the patient appoint the immunostimulating drugs. The individual approach to treatment of clamidiosis is important: the attending physician surely considers all features of each patient.
However, there are also basic general principles of treatment of clamidiosis. It is important to consider that chlamydias are intracellular activators what follows from that impact on them of some antibiotics can be inefficient. Therefore for therapy of a hldamidioz surely choose those antibiotics which can get into the centers of defeat and in a cell. Three groups of drugs are applied to treatment of clamidiosis: macroleads, tetracyclines, ftorkhinolona. Sometimes in the course of treatment also appoint antifungal drugs that against therapy development of a fungal infection did not happen antibiotics.
Rather often doctors should treat also chronic cases. Quite often at first development of clamidiosis of symptoms of a disease in the person is not observed at all. If the disease progresses in an organism already long span, then its center is gradually fenced off by a barrier from healthy fabrics. Respectively, such barrier significantly complicates hit in the center of antibiotics. Besides, in development of a chronic form of an illness at the person immunity gradually weakens. Thus, the main task in the course of treatment of clamidiosis is ensuring high access of an antibiotic and improvement of permeability of barriers which protect inflammation sites. In this case the immunostimulation method, and also topical treatment will be effective. Besides, the course of antibiotics is in parallel appointed.
After passing of a course of treatment of clamidiosis of the patient without fail has to be exposed to accurate control over its state. It is necessary to stop treatment completely if negative analyses on existence of chlamydias take place, the patient does not state complaints to own state, laboratory analyses do not confirm existence of inflammations in an organism. A week later after the end of treatment carry out a check analysis on a chlamydia. Such analysis repeats in 14 days.
If in such analyses chlamydias are not revealed, then the patient is considered healthy. If treatment was made to both partners, it is possible to speak about resuming of sex life after the last negative analysis at partners.
Sometimes after treatment of clamidiosis women have manifestations of the milkwoman who is reaction to disturbance of a biocenosis in a vagina. To warn such phenomenon, often use the special drugs recovering the broken biocenosis.
There are also certain national methods which are applied in the course of treatment of a hlaimidioz. So, traditional medicine recommends to accept broth of stalks of parsley, infusion from mix of a grass of a horsetail and fruits of a juniper. Also it is recommended to drink before acceptance of food on one tablespoon of infusion of collecting herbs which includes a leaf of watch, an inula root, flowers of a centaurea, a bud of a birch, a ptarmigan-berry. There is also other grass collecting which can be used at a disease of clamidiosis, however it is necessary to consider that they cannot replace traditional treatment of this disease.
Prevention of clamidiosis
Generally measures of prevention of clamidiosis are similar to the preventive methods applied to prevention of other diseases which are transmitted sexually. However, in this case it is necessary to show consideration for prevention of an illness especially, prevalence of a chlamydial infection very high, at the same time disease often happens asymptomatic. The most efficient method of prevention of a disease is the correct sexual behavior. In this case it is about avoiding of accidental sexual bonds, and also about continuous use of a condom. It is impossible to believe that so-called "national" methods will be able to protect from clamidiosis, for example, syringing, washing of generative organs. Such methods can negatively influence, breaking microflora of generative organs.
It is important to conform to the rules of hygiene, to conduct healthy life and to pass periodic inspections at the specialist, and also to periodically make tests. It is especially important to pay attention to preventive measures to people who are going to become parents.