Chloroform

Хлороформ Drug photo

The description is actual on 13.09.2014

  • Latin name: Chloroformium
  • ATH code: N01AB02; M02AX10
  • Active ingredient: Chloroform (Chloroformium)
  • Producer: Ruiyuan Group Limited, China (Chloroform for an anesthesia); Dentalife, Australia; LLC Tekhnokhimiya, Ukraine; LLC NPP SILUR, Ukraine; LLC HaloPolymer Kirovo-Chepetsk, Russian Federation; JSC Khimprom, Russian Federation.

Structure

What is chloroform?

Chloroform is the narcotic substance of a fat row having stronger effect, than narcotic ether.

Unlike ether it causes approach of an anesthesia much quicker and well weakens skeletal muscles. However together with it it is characterized as very toxic means.

Formula and properties of substance

In Wikipedia it is said about Chloroform that under normal conditions this chemical compound represents mobile flying transparent liquid without color and with a characteristic radio smell. Chloroform is inexplosive and negoryuch.

Chloroform formula — CHCl3. The formula was established by the French chemist Dumas (Dumas).

Substance is almost insoluble in water and in all proportions mixes up with fat essential oils, alcohols and ether. Also it well dissolves a large amount of organic matters (for example, lecithin, paraffin, pitches, rubber) and some inorganic matters (for example, iodine, sulfur or phosphorus).

Chloroform — connection rather unstable. Under the influence of light and air it is oxidized oxygen. Products of this reaction are chlorine, hydrochloric acid and dichloride of carbonic acid (phosgene) — the poisonous chemical possessing suffocating action.

For this reason it is necessary to avoid carrying out procedure of chloroforming at an open flame. Poisonings with phosgene — quite frequent phenomenon during the work with chloroform which was stored in the warm place for a long time.

To prevent Chloroform decomposition, it is necessary to store it in banks from orange glass. With the same purpose add alcohol to chloroform or — sometimes — urotropin.

Class of danger of Chloroform on extent of impact on the person — II (Highly hazardous substances).

Release form

Form of production of Chloroform — an emulsion for external use in bottles with a capacity of 50 ml.

Substance is issued according to the existing state standard specification 20015-88 standard.

Chloroform for an anesthesia is issued in banks of dark glass with a capacity of 200 ml.

Pharmacological action

Chloroform belongs to the category of the neurotropic drugs used for an inhalation anesthesia. The name of substance on Latin — Chloroformium.

Means is characterized by ability to have the high anesthetizing and poisoning effect at inhalation, causing reversible paralysis of all vital signs.

And this its action is found on all live organisms — the elementary microorganisms, bacteria, fungi, the higher and inferior plants, animal. Under the influence of Chloroform their life activity and growth stops, at plants growth of seeds stops.

Antiseptic and antiferment properties of substance are based on it: in particular, it promotes delay of processes of rotting and spirit fermentation of sugar.

Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics

Chloroform — what is it?

The mechanism of effect of Chloroform as anesthetic is connected with reduction of temperature of phase transition of some membrane lipids. Same in turn promotes increase of flowability of membranes of nervous cells.

Narcotic effect of Chloroform on the person is shown in his ability to influence nervous activity that is followed by gradual fading of consciousness, decrease in sensitivity to influence of irritants and loss of ability to strong-willed actions.

The person plunges into the ebrietas or devocalizations which is followed by illusions, the unmotivated and in-coordinate movements, nonsense, concern and — sometimes — increase of convulsive activity (so, some people under the influence of chloroform have kloniko-tonic spasms).

Local effect of Chloroform is implemented by means of irritation of sensitive (receptor) nerve terminations and other elements of fabric system.

Getting on an integument, liquid Chloroform causes a cryesthesia in the beginning that is connected with its evaporation, then there are a burning sensation and erubescence, and at protection against evaporation — inflammation signs which are followed by formation of bubbles.

On mucous membranes Chloroform makes even more expressed irritating impact, the proglatyvaniye of substance can become the reason of a severe damage of a stomach, a hematemesis (hematemesis) and a diarrhea.

Vapors of Chloroform irritate not so strongly, however at their inhalation there are various reflexes as a result of which respiratory activity, function of heart, and also function of other bodies and systems of bodies are broken.

High toxicity of substance provokes the following complications:

  • disturbances of frequency, rhythm and sequence of reductions of a cardiac muscle;
  • myocardium dystrophy;
  • cirrhosis;
  • dystrophy (atrophy) of a liver.

Chloroform is one of the first substances which were offered to use as anesthetics at surgical interventions: it found broad application in surgical practice from the middle of the XIX century.

As affects the person Hloroform as means for an inhalation anesthesia

The inhalation anesthesia is carried out by Chloroform steam inhalation. Influencing an organism, this narcotic substance causes characteristic changes in its one and all bodies and systems.

In process of saturation of an organism Chloroform, the consciousness, breath and blood circulation of the person begin to change depending on that, the anesthesia is how deep.

In total allocate 4 stages of changes:

  • I \analgesia stage;
  • II \excitement stage;
  • III \a surgical stage (this stage has 4 subtotals);
  • IV \awakening stage.

At a stage of an analgesia which lasts no more than 3-4 minutes the patient dozes and is slowed down, but at the same time is in consciousness and can answer the questions asked it in monosyllables. It has no superficial sensitivity to pain, but tactile sensitivity and sensitivity to thermal influence remains. During this period such simple operations as opening of abscesses or phlegmons, diagnostic testings can be performed.

In some cases the initial stage of effect of Chloroform is followed by reasonable reflex movements: patients can try to discharge a mask or to draw aside hands.

At a stage of excitement the centers located in bark of a great brain are braked, the subcrustal centers remain in a condition of excitement. The patient has no consciousness, however speech and motive excitement is expressed (he can try to get up from a table, shouts).

Integuments are hyperemic, superficial vessels of a body and, in particular, the person are expanded, temperature is increased, and a beating of arteries strengthened. Pupils are expanded, but react to light, dacryagogue is noted. Quite often there are fits of coughing, secretion of bronchial glands amplifies, vomiting can begin.

At this stage it is impossible to carry out any surgical manipulations, at a stage of excitement continue saturation of an organism by narcotic substance for deepening of an anesthesia. Duration and expressiveness of a stage of excitement are individual for each specific patient.

Consequence of effect of Chloroform on girls/women, children and patients whose organism is exhausted is the small duration of a phase of excitement and sometimes its total absence. And, on the contrary, excitement is expressed stronger at the people suffering from alcohol addiction.

With approach of the 3rd, surgical, stages the patient calms down, his breath is leveled, and indicators of pulse rate and arterial pressure approach initial. At this stage after Chloroform completely lulled the patient, the doctor begins operation.

Further influence of Chloroform on the reflex centers located in a myelencephalon provokes decrease in reflex activity, nonsensitivity to influence of irritants and loss by the patient of a muscle tone. This state is characterized as a deep anesthesia.

The stage of awakening begins with interruption in supply to the patient of an anesthesia. At the same time the level of content of drug in its blood decreases, the patient passes all grades of anesthesia again, but only already upside-down, and wakens.

As Chloroform is highly toxic substance and has the expressed oppressing effect on a liver, central nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular systems, now it is practically not used as narcotic means.

When exceeding a dose of Chloroform during anesthesia paralysis of a respiratory center therefore there comes primary apnoea can develop. The most dangerous effects are noted from heart (up to its sudden stop).

Due to the emergence of new drugs and methods of the general anesthesia of an organism, was decided to refuse Chloroform as narcotic means. However over time it was succeeded to develop the anesthetization method minimizing all harmful properties of this substance.

This way assumes use of Chloroform with observance of a strict dosage (dosing will be out by means of special narcotic devices and the calibrated Hlorotek evaporators) and in combination with a large amount of oxygen. In concentration 3-4 about. % such mix causes an anesthesia without excitement, optimum concentration for maintenance of the III (surgical) stage — 1-1,5 about. %.

Chloroform — what substance is and as it influences an organism

Steam inhalation of Chloroform has harmful effect on a condition of a nervous system. Inhalation throughout a short interval of time of air which contains only 0,09% of Chloroform provokes dizziness, the increased fatigue and attacks of headaches.

Diseases of a liver and kidneys are result of continuous impact on an organism of this substance.

Statistically, practically every tenth inhabitant of the planet has an allergy to Chloroform. It is expressed most often as strong fervescence (to 40 degrees) and vomitings (after surgeries at which substance was used as anesthetic, vomiting was noted approximately at 70-85% of patients).

The researches conducted on animals showed that inhalation of air which contains only 0,03% of Chloroform pregnant females of rats leads to spontaneous abortion. The same was observed also at rats who Chloroform were given orally.

At the next generations of the experimental rats and mice continuing to inhale air with Chloroform the bigger quantity of cubs with different inborn pathologies, than at their healthy fellows was born.

Influence of substance on reproductive function of the person is studied not up to the end. It is known only that long inhalation of its vapors (within 2-10 minutes) can provoke a lethal outcome.

Allegedly Chloroform can cause hereditary changes in a fruit and increases probability of emergence of malignant new growths. These properties are shown only in cases when admissible concentration of substance in air is exceeded.

How to make Chloroform in house conditions

At forums the questions "How to Lull the Person Hloroformom?" and "How Independently to Prepare Chloroform?" are frequent.

If to lull the person — a task of the experienced anesthesiologist, then to receive substance in house conditions at desire in power almost to everyone.

Chloroform is chlorderivative methane. Receive it by heating of chloric lime with ethanol (alcohol).

Receiving from alcohol

To receive substance in such a way, it is necessary to take 430 g of chloric lime which contains 23,4% of CaO2Cl2 and to mix it from 1,5 l of water. Then here add 100 g of caustic (extinguished) lime and 100 cubic cm of alcohol 88,5%.

The turned-out mix is overtaken, and add limy milk to distillate (a suspension of extinguished lime in lime water) and CaCl calcium chloride ₂. The emitted Chloroform is separated, several times shake up it with concentrated sulphuric acid and rectified (divide into almost pure components by repeated evaporation of liquid and condensation of vapors).

Receiving from acetone

To receive Chloroform from acetone, take 275 g of chloric lime which contains 33,3% of active chlorine, pound it from 800 cubic cm of water and gradually pour in mix from acetone and water (for its preparation of acetone take 22 g, and water in number of 70 cubic cm).

Receiving from potassium hypochlorites (K) or sodium (Na)

This method means electrolysis of aqueous solution of potassium chloride and alcohol. Instead of alcohol use of acetone or aldehyde is allowed.

Receiving from the Whiteness

One of the easiest ways of receiving substance — mixing of the Whiteness and acetone. On 100 ml of the Whiteness at the same time it is necessary to take 10 ml of acetone. Such amount of ingredients allows to receive rather big (about 3 ml) the Chloroform drop. Possibly, at distillation it is possible to receive a little bigger amount of required substance.

Indications to Chloroform use

Chloroform is used as narcotic means at surgical interventions. Besides, in the nomenclature of medicines there is also a drug "Chloroform for External Use".

As one of the main properties of Chloroform is its ability to render an irritant action on skin and mucous, it is quite often used in a combination to turpentine or methyl ether of salicylic acid for grindings at neuralgia and inflammatory defeats of skeletal muscles (miozita).

In some cases Chloroform in the form of drops (in mix with valerian root tincture) is appointed at a hiccups, a meteorism, vomiting and pains in epigastric area.

For reduction of sensitivity of mucous membranes of the airways affected with toxic agents of the irritating and tear action (in particular, arsenous hydrogen — one of the strongest inorganic poisons having hemoclastic effect and provoking development of malignant tumors) Chloroform is appointed in the form of so-called antismoke mix which part in addition to it Ethyl and Nashatyrny alcohols, and also narcotic ether are.

Contraindications

Contraindications to use of Chloroform as narcotic means are:

  • the increased individual sensitivity to it;
  • pathologies of cardiovascular system;
  • liver diseases;
  • diseases of kidneys;
  • asthenic syndrome.

For external use Chloroform is contraindicated if the patient has pyoinflammatory skin diseases. Contraindications to oral administration are not established.

Side effects

Exceeding of the recommended Chloroform dose at the patient's lulling to slip by inhalation, and in particular inhalation of the concentrated vapors of this substance (when concentration exceeds 2%), leads to weakening of cordial activity, sharp falling of indicators of a blood pressure (up to development of a collapse) and a cardiac standstill.

Vapors of Chloroform render an irritant action on mucous membranes of eyes, respiratory tracts, and at intake — as well mucous a stomach. As a result of such influence at the person:

  • mucous redden;
  • there is a burning sensation;
  • plentiful department of slime, tears and saliva begins;
  • there are fits of coughing;
  • there is a feeling of nausea;
  • there is vomiting.

Hypersecretion of slime provokes difficulties of breath, and in some cases can become the asthma reason.

As a result of allocation at the person vomiting quite often begins sialadens of a large amount of saliva. Hit of emetic masses in lungs in turn leads to suffocation or development of pneumonia.

Vapors of Chloroform irritate also the sensitive nerve terminations located in mucous respiratory tracts that exerts reflex impact on function of the respiratory and vasomotor centers, and also on activity of the center of a vagus nerve.

As a result — after primary excitement at the person breath and heartbeat (reflex begin to be slowed down sometimes up to a full stop).

Chloroform possesses ability to get into the unimpaired integuments, in the beginning causing her irritation. Long local influence is followed by a strong inflammation, and blistering. Dermatitis or eczema can sometimes develop.

In some cases at the patient the addiction to Chloroform connected with substance reception inside or abuse of it in the form of inhalations can develop. This type of toxicomania carries the name "hloroformomaniye".

The instruction on Chloroform

Outwardly Chloroform is applied in the form of difficult chloroformic linimentum which part it is in equal parts with oil extract of leaves of a black henbane or durmanny oil. Means is applied on a painful site and accurately rubbed.

Drug for oral administration in the form of Chloroform on water is appointed to accept three-five drops 3-4 times a day. Drug in the form of chloroformic water with the content of Chloroform of 0,5% is accepted on one tablespoon. Frequency rate of receptions — 3-4 in day.

The highest single dose for intake for adult patients makes 0,5 ml, daily — 1 ml.

Overdose

Chloroform has toxic effect on a metabolism and function of internals.
The threshold of perception of a smell makes 0,0003 mg on liter. Brightly notable specific smell is observed when concentration of Chloroform makes 0,02 mg on liter.

Narcotic concentration of substance — 0,25-0,5 mg/l. In such concentration Chloroform provokes change of speed of development of reflex muscular tension, change of a course of exchange processes, gastric and intestinal frustration, arrhythmia, decrease in amount of the urine separated by kidneys and emergence in sugar urine.

Serious poisonings with substance are most often noted at the people working in pharmaceutical industry. They are followed by dysfunction of heart and a respiratory center, defeat mucous (an eye, a stomach, airways).

Easier forms of poisoning are followed by the vomiting raised by weakness in all body, dizzinesses. At some people stomach aches and the excited state can be noted.

Laboratory analyses can show the change of cellular composition of blood which is characterized by the increased or lowered maintenance of leukocytes.

Even low concentration of Chloroform can provoke heavy poisonings with damage of a liver.

Treatment of poisoning with Chloroform

If symptoms of poisoning arise at ingalyatsinny introduction to the patient Hloroforma, it is necessary to stop giving of an anesthesia immediately. Further actions are directed to simplification of passability of respiratory tracts.

The patient is connected to the medical ventilator, apply an oxygenotherapy (give the moistened oxygen for inhalations) to elimination of air hunger and provide hyperventilation of lungs.

It is recommended to inhale the moistened oxygen continuously within 2-4 hours, further — for 30-40 minutes with 15-minute intervals.

For providing effective transport of oxygen and elimination of symptoms and effects of intoxication also resort to infusion-transfusion therapy.

The patient is warmed, appoint to him intravenous administration of a hydrocortisone and dexamethasone (in the dose equal to 1 mg to each kilogram of body weight). For removal from blood of toxic products carry out procedures of a hemodialysis and hemosorption. Also prevention of pneumonia is considered reasonable.

For normalization of action of the heart appoint subcutaneous injections with caffeine (10%), camphor (20%) and Cordiaminum (25%). The volume of one injection — 1-2 ml.

If symptoms of poisoning arise owing to oral administration of substance, first aid is reduced to an intubation of lungs, a gastric lavage, appointment sick absorbent carbon and purgatives — sodium salt of sulphuric acid (sodium sulfate) and a liquid paraffin.

Effect of Chloroform is eliminated within several days. The enteroclysis is recommended to be done to pure washing waters (a so-called siphon enema).

Also appoint the procedures directed to prevention of damages of kidneys and a liver. Specialists quite often resort also to bloodletting (150-300 ml) with further partial blood substitution.

If at the patient the kollaptoidny state (an easy form of a collapse) developed, intravenous administration of 0,5 ml of 0,05% - the Strophanthin solution leg in 10-20 ml of solution of glucose is shown it. According to indications Metazon can be appointed.

Therapy with use of sympathomimetic amines (adrenaline, noradrenaline, ephedrine, etc.) is contraindicated. Besides, it is not necessary to appoint sulfanamide and chlorine-containing somnolent drugs.

After poisoning with drug the use of greasy food and alcohol is strictly forbidden.

Interaction

Medicinal interaction is not described.

Terms of sale

According to the recipe or according to lists for medical institutions.

Storage conditions

List B. It is necessary to store drug in well corked bottle in the dry cool place. At the wrong storage substance quickly evaporates.

Period of validity

8 years.

Responses

It is rather difficult to find About Chloroform in the Internet. It is connected with the fact that substance is more used for the laboratory and educational purposes, but not for treatment. That means helped someone from vomiting or joint pain are extremely rare.

Chloroform price

Interests many where it is possible to buy Chloroform and whether it is possible to buy Chloroform medical in a drugstore. As, all lulling means applied in anesthesiology are released either according to the recipe, or according to special lists for medical institutions, usual drugstores it is not on sale.

Suggest to order drug the websites of the manufacturing companies and some Internet drugstores.

It is possible to buy Chloroform in Ukraine on 97-150 UAH for 1 l. Drug of the Chinese producer Ruiyuan Group Limited in SPB or Moscow is sold on average at 3200-3550 rubles.

Means of the Australian company Dentalife is on sale on 60 US dollars for packaging. At the same time its delivery to all large cities of the CIS is possible (in particular, to Kiev, Moscow, St. Petersburg).

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