And whether you know...
Cholesterol represents fatty natural alcohol which contains in cellular membranes. This organic compound is insoluble in water, but is exposed to dissolution by organic solvents and fats. More than 80% of all cholesterol which is in an organism are also produced by it: gonads, adrenal glands, kidneys, intestines, liver. Other cholesterol arrives together with food. This substance plays an important role in an organism: it provides stability of cellular membranes at big fluctuations of temperatures, also cholesterol is necessary for synthesis of vitamin D, production of many steroid hormones adrenal glands, female and man's sexual. Recent researches showed that this connection also participates in regulation of work of synapses of a brain and immunity.
It is a little history
In the middle of the 18th century one chemist received white dense matter from gallstones. Substance it possessed properties of fat, and cholesterol in pure form was removed only in 20 flyings after this opening. A century later connection was already almost completely studied, its main properties are revealed.
Cholesterol role in a human body
- As part of a cellular membrane cholesterol works as the biolayer modifier, by giving of necessary rigidity and increase in density of molecules of phospholipids to it. That is, this connection normalizes membrane flowability.
- One more important role – opening of a chain of synthesis of corticosteroids and steroid sex hormones.
- Base for formation of vitamins of group D and fatty acids.
- Normalization of permeability of cells.
- Protection of erythrocytes against hemolitic poisons.
Cholesterol in pure form cannot be delivered to body tissues as it is insoluble in water. Therefore he unites to so-called apolipoproteins (proteins conveyors). Lipoproteins – so are called these complex connections.
Communication between the level of cholesterol and health of the person by scientists was established for a long time. Its high level, as a rule, leads to atherosclerotic changes in vessels. Such low-molecular lipoproteins received the name "bad". They are slopes in formation of ateroskrotichesky plaques on walls of vessels and to allocation of crystals of cholesterol. In this regard the risk of developing of strokes, heart attacks and other diseases of vessels and heart considerably increases.
High-molecular lipoproteins on the contrary in a large number are inherent for an organism of the healthy person. They are well soluble, do not settle on walls of vessels.
Level of bad cholesterol is increased by such factors as:
- Endocrine disturbances: insufficiency of sex hormones and hormones of a thyroid gland
- Insulin hypersecretion
- Diabetes mellitus
- Excess reception of alcoholic beverages
- Shortage of pectins, celluloses, lipotropic factors, vitamins and microelements, polyunsaturated fatty acids
- High-carbohydrate diet
- Incorrectly to Pitana excessive use of animal fats and high level of cholesterol
- Overeating, obesity, excess weight
Diseases of a liver and kidneys
For decrease in level of high-molecular cholesterol full refusal of smoking, minimization of the use of alcoholic beverages, an exercise stress, the healthy balanced nutrition, reception of vitamins is recommended. If the above described measures have no positive effect, to the patient therapeutic treatment is appointed. However, it has to be supported by the correct diet surely: refusal from fat, digestible carbohydrates, etc. For decrease in level of cholesterol use niacin, statines, ezetimib, fibrata, etc.
Cholesterol and atherosclerosis
One of the most dangerous complications to which excess of cholesterol threatens is atherosclerosis. This disease is characterized formation of plaques in vessels that can lead to blood clots and even to a lethal outcome. Treat the major factors connected with the cholesterol influencing development of atherosclerosis:
- The raised general cholesterol
- The lowered high-molecular
- The raised low-molecular cholesterol in blood
Communication of the given disease with the increased level of this connection and remains ambiguous: the fact that increase of level of cholesterol increases risk of atherosclerosis, but on the other hand is indisputable, this disease can develop also at people with its normal level. Actually, cholesterol of high density is only one of factors of development of a disease, and on a row with others can provoke its fastest approach.
There is one more view of this problem. According to some scientists, this connection is "construction" material: it settles in problem places of vessels, without allowing them to sustain damage. For this reason and at the normal level of cholesterol development of atherosclerosis is also possible.
Thus, cholesterol studying still is an important task for physicians.
Standard of the contents in blood
Level of low-molecular cholesterol normal should not be higher than 100 mg/dl, and for people suffering from vascular diseases – it is not higher than 70 mg/dl.
At adults, as a rule, the level of such cholesterol is increased.
In a case when level reaches 190 mg/dl, it is recommended to start medicinal therapy. The level of high-molecular cholesterol – the better is higher, the share 1/5 in a total amount of lipoproteins is normal of it.