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Intoxication, or toxicosis, represents a disease state which is caused by effect of toxins or other substances. They can be made as by an organism, that is to be internal causes, and to arrive from the outside, that is in the form of microbes. It is not necessary to confuse intoxication and poisoning. The first concept makes narrower sense, it describes only process, but not external influence.
Intoxication has a number of symptoms:
- Deterioration in a peripheral blood-groove
- The lowered arterial pressure
- The clapping cardiac sounds
- "Marble" skin
- Paresis intestines
- Diarrhea and vomiting
- Damage of kidneys and liver
- Disturbance of a water and electrolytic exchange
- Hemorrhagic syndrome
The course of toxicosis can be divided into two phases:
The first is connected with generalized reaction – that is reaction which extends to all organism. Such toxicosis can have different options of a current: intestinal toxicosis, Kishsh's toxicosis, Waterhouse-Frideriksen's syndrome, a fulminant form of toxicosis, toxicosis with dehydration, neurotoxicosis, toxicosis with an entsefallichesky syndrome, etc. During such reaction neurologic frustration develop, there can be a coma and even a dead faint.
The second phase is characterized by localization of disease process and can happen in the following options: The Gemolitiko-Uremichesky syndrome, Gasser's syndrome, toxicosis with a liver failure.
Risk factor of development of toxicosis at children's age are the postponed infections preceding vaccination, disturbance of a metabolism, TsNS disease, birth trauma, etc.
Intoxication (toxicosis) happens the following types:
Toksiko-septichesky state. Is its reason penetrations of staphylococcus of which involvement of many systems and bodies in pathological process is characteristic. Skin very much turns pale, lymph nodes increase, oppression of TsNS happens accruing, sometimes to development by long astenisation and a soporous state, in lungs there is pleurisy, cavities can form, develop respiratory insufficiency. Damage of a gastrointestinal tract can be followed by an ulcer and necrotic hemorrhagic coloenteritis of a severe form, and frustration of a metabolism — water scarce obezvozhivaniyay, deficit of calcium, a hypoxia.
Toxicosis of pregnant women. It represents the whole complex of changes which arise on 13-16 week. Vomiting is the most often found display of intoxication of pregnant women. Pathologies of a gastrointestinal tract belong to one of the factors provoking toxicosis, pathologies of a pancreas and a gall bladder lead to more severe forms of intoxication. Development of toxicosis leads to disturbance proteinaceous, fatty, carbohydrate and a water salt metabolism therefore there can come loss of body weight and exhaustion, the accruing dehydration – liquid loss, there are changes in TsNS, lungs, a liver, kidneys.
At more than 90% of all pregnant women nausea and vomiting which happens 1-2 times a day is observed. Such display of intoxication is not pathology, and is considered as norm.
Vomiting during toxicosis is subdivided into three degrees. At easy degree it is usually provoked by unpleasant smells, vomiting arises not more often than five times a day. At moderately severe vomiting the woman can lose up to two kilograms of weight a week, it occurs to 10 times a day, and the state of health already begins to inspire fear. Excessive vomiting is characterized by a serious condition, the quantity of vomiting in days reaches 25 times, it can be provoked by any activity. In this case pulse becomes frequent, body temperature increases. Research of urine shows not the best results.
Intoxication with a renal failure has a set of symptoms: thrombocytopenia, intravascular hemolitic anemia and renal failure of an acute form. Usually vaccination, gastroviral and respiratory and viral infections is an origin of such form. At the patient puffiness of a nose, a century, lips is observed, yellowness, a diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pains, an oliguria, arise symptoms of damage of kidneys, there is a disturbance activity of cardiovascular system: tachycardia, systolic noise, an ekstrasistoliya, arterial pressure which at first was lowered raises. This type of intoxication can lead to development of an otdyshka and even pneumonia. Blood test confirms existence of toxicosis: content of urea, creatine and residual nitrogen raises, comes to light normokhromny anemia, a reticulocytosis, there is an increase in level of bilirubin.
Toxicosis with a liver failure is intoxication of a virus origin which most often strikes small children. The initial phase of its course is similar to a SARS or a gastrointestinal infection. Symptoms of this toxicosis is drowsiness or excitability, very plentiful vomiting, increase of a muscle tone up to spasms, body temperature reaches 39 degrees, liquor pressure increases. After these syndromes neurologic accrue: frequent and deep breath, tonic spasms, an ataxy, a sluggish photoharmose, the confused consciousness. Meningeal symptoms are absent even at the height of a disease.
Toxicosis with adrenal insufficiency arises, as a rule, at meningococcal sepsis. As its main symptoms it is possible to consider the general concern, pallor of skin and emergence of spots, rash, temperature increase to 39-40 degrees, a pant, even tonic spasms and a hematemesis are possible.
Complex treatment is a guarantee of successful disposal of toxicosis. It includes first aid, clarification from organism poisons, introduction of antidotes, for treatment of toxicosis during pregnancy tracking body weight is obligatory.