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The dyschromia of skin is a change of coloring of integuments of the person. Such disturbances happen rather often. Sometimes they do not deliver to the person of discomfort, but in certain cases even on a photo of a dyschromia of skin are easily distinguishable. In such cases high-quality diagnosis and treatment of a dyschromia of skin is necessary.
How discoloration of integuments is shown?
Healthy skin color is caused by existence in it of four different pigments. Melanin is a brown pigment which generally is in a basal layer of epidermis. Carotene – a yellow pigment which is allocated in epidermis keratinotsita. The red pigment is a hemoglobin which is oxygenated and is in capillaries. The blue pigment is the recovered hemoglobin which is in venules.
Change of a xanthopathy you can have different genesis. A nevus pigmentosus on skin often appears owing to surplus of production of melanin. In more exceptional cases a nevus pigmentosus on a body is connected with adjournment in integuments of other listed above pigments. Disturbance of a xanthopathy on hands, on a shin and on other areas of a body can also appear owing to influence of some external factors. Treatment of such phenomena depends, first of all, on what reasons of a nevus pigmentosus will be found. The xanthopathy reasons standing, hands and on other body parts, can be connected both with diseases, and with external influences. For example, pigmental staining on hands can appear owing to influence of sunshine, etc.
To define features and the reasons of such phenomenon, it is not rather simple to look at a photo or to perform external inspection. Specialists in the course of diagnosis define two types of a dyschromia – inborn and acquired. The acquired dyschromia can be primary and secondary.
At a dyschromia it can be noted both a hyperchromia (hyperpegmentation of skin), and a hypochromia (hypopigmentation). Also coloring of an integument can be absent completely (an achromia or a depigmentation).
If the person suffers from an inborn form of a disease, then changes of coloring can remain throughout all his life. If it develops the acquired form of an illness, then changes disappear after a while or remain forever (it directly depends on the reasons of their emergence).
Why there is discoloration of integuments?
The pigment melanin is formed in skin under the influence of an ultraviolet. Melanin is produced by cells melanocytes. If in an organism too large amount of melanin is developed, then on a body freckles, hloazma, birthmarks, a nevus pigmentosus can appear.
If the insufficient amount of melanin is produced, then the person can have albinism, vitiligo.
Freckles (the scientific name of this phenomenon — an efelida) often appear at those people who have genetic predisposition to this phenomenon. If at suntan tyrosine is distributed in skin cells evenly, then freckles appear at an uneven arrangement of tyrosine which turns afterwards into melanin.
Most brightly freckles at the person are shown at the age of 20-25, and after 35-year age they become more pale. More often freckles appear at people with red hair and at blondes. Freckles are especially noticeable if the person has a white skin color.
Age nevus pigmentosus on a face appears at people of advanced age. Such educations are called sometimes "senile" lentigo. Their emergence is connected with impact on integuments of sunshine. These are flat sites of skin of brown color which appear in most cases on hands, on skin, a back, shoulders. Questions of why there are such spots what reasons of a xanthopathy on a face, are most actual for women after 50 flyings. Over the years skin becomes thinner and susceptible to external influences. But sometimes women try to bleach a nevus pigmentosus and at younger age. Such spots do not do harm to health therefore drug treatment is not required. However for reasons of elimination of the cosmetic defects provoking psychological discomfort whitening of the person by means of different procedures and saloon methods is carried out.
Hloazma are spots of a brown shade which appear on a face generally at women during pregnancy. Hloazma can change opaque skin color and at development of some diseases of a female genital, at liver illnesses, at infection with parasites. If such educations merge in one spot, its size can be rather big. As soon as the reason for which the spot appears vanishes, education disappears. That is after the delivery the woman's face becomes pure again.
Formation of birthmarks is connected with accumulation on skin of melanocytes. In different quantity most of people has birthmarks. They appear on a body from first years of life of the kid. More often such spots appear during those periods when the person has serious hormonal splashes – during puberty, during pregnancy, a climax. More serious health hazard is constituted by those birthmarks which appeared not right after the birth, and at more mature age. Such educations regenerate in melanomas more often.
The melanoma is the pigmentation disturbance, most dangerous to the person. This malignancy which develops very aggressively. The melanoma burgeons deeply in skin and extends further, affecting other bodies. Therefore the disease is very important to diagnose this as soon as possible and to begin its treatment.
Vitiligo is an emergence on skin of colourless sites owing to loss of a pigment. In an organism there is a development of antibodies which strike melanocytes. The only symptom of vitiligo is colourless, pale skin color on certain body parts. This phenomenon meets rather seldom. The reasons of pale skin color are caused by autoimmune defeats. The illness is connected with hereditary predisposition.
Nevus pigmentosus can appear on places of burns, stings of insects, hems, having combed, rashes at the small tortoiseshell. Discoloration of skin is sometimes connected also with treatment by some medicines (estrogen, contraceptives), with disturbance of functions of immune system.
After usual suntan under active sunshine or after visit of a sunbed on a body dark sites can also appear.
Discolorations of skin can be connected not only with pigmentation disturbances, but also with the general diseases. For example, earthy or gray skin color of the person obviously demonstrates that with health at it not everything is all right. It is necessary to consider that types of skin color of the person can vary also in connection with inborn features. Quite wide palette of shades of integuments is to be considered as norm. What color skin at the person, depends on his genetic features.
But if the person notices that he changed an integument shade, it is possible to suspect development of a disease. It is necessary to define, first of all, what natural shades of skin happen at it (color can vary under the influence of suntan, a sleep debt, etc.). To make the exact diagnosis and to learn how the disease is called, it is possible only after the address to the doctor.
If gray skin color of the person became swept very up throughout short time, then it can demonstrate disturbances in work of the alimentary system. Sharp discoloration of the person on grayish is a reason for visit to the gastroenterologist. The earthy-gray shade can be the evidence of disturbances in functioning of a pancreas. Also gray shade of integuments is characteristic of people who smoke much, abuse alcohol.
Red complexion – a consequence of vasodilatation and active inflow of blood. It happens to the healthy person staying in hot rooms or during a heat on the street. Then body temperature sharply grows. The person can redden also owing to serious poisonings – toxic, narcotic, alcoholic. However face reddening can be also the certificate of a hypertension, problems in functions of cardiovascular system. How to define the exact diagnosis, the doctor will tell. In this case not the question of how to improve complexion, and immediate elimination of the reason of reddening will be the most important. How to level complexion at small reddening which is connected with features of skin, the specialist cosmetologist will prompt.
That who aims to receive equal olive skin color and for this purpose regularly acquires a tan, it is necessary to consider that the ultraviolet aggravates any pigmentation. Therefore it is very important to use qualitative protective equipment always.
How to get rid of discoloration of integuments?
If there is a pigmentation on a certain body part, then how to make equal skin color, it is necessary to consult on the dermatologist. Even if at the person pigmentation slightly changed, then it is simple to buy cream from a nevus pigmentosus insufficiently. It is initially necessary to pass inspection at the cosmetologist, and if necessary – to visit also the dermatologist, the therapist.
Bleaching creams from a nevus pigmentosus contain in the structure different substances, in particular, vitamin C, abutin, azelianovy acid. Sometimes cream against a nevus pigmentosus contains also other components. But it is necessary to consider that their influence can be toxic therefore it is necessary to use such means very carefully.
One more effective cream from pigmentation on a face – means which contains mercury. However it also is toxic therefore it is initially necessary to check whether causes cream of negative reaction, having applied it on a small site of skin for 24 hours. This means will not suit people with a serious illness, to pregnant women.
It is not necessary to use without preliminary consultation with the doctor means from unknown producers, for example, the certain advertized Chinese cream with the unreadable instruction and unclear structure. Nevertheless only the specialist who will initially define in what the reason of discolorations of integuments can advise the best cream for removal of spots.
It is not less important to use qualitative sunblock cream, staying under direct beams of the sun. It is important to protect such means face skin, hands. If only easy pigmentation takes place, sometimes it is required to apply the peeling means to its elimination only.
Often pigmentation treatment by the laser practices in modern cosmetology. If disposal of discoloration in house conditions is impossible, treatment of hyperpegmentation of skin is carried out in the conditions of salon or clinic. How to get rid of a nevus pigmentosus by means of the laser, the specialist who individually is engaged in treatment will tell in more detail. Laser removal of a nevus pigmentosus is carried out with use of the dosed beam which goes to a pigmentation zone. After such procedure of a spot for some time become more dark, after it they peel. Widely removal of pigmentation by the laser on a face practices, also by this method the expressed posttraumatic pigmentation on all body parts is removed. Laser treatments cannot be practiced at acute infectious diseases, pregnancy, in the presence of inflammatory process in the place of pigmentation. Such procedure relatively is not painful, the processed places quickly begin to live.
Also other methods of removal of such spots – freezing, photoremoval (removal by flashlight), pigmentation elimination by folk remedies, etc. practice.
However the decision on how to clean a nevus pigmentosus, cannot be accepted independently. The most effective will always be those procedures which are appointed by the specialist.
In the course of carrying out the majority of the bleaching procedures two stages of influence practice. First, this ensuring peeling of a corneous layer of an integument, secondly – delay of products of melanin. For peeling the peeling which promotes drying of skin practices. As a result, she grows old more intensively. Therefore without fail it is necessary to take care of moistening.
Birthmarks, as a rule, delete only if there are specific medical indications. It is reasonable to delete birthmarks, only if they are serious cosmetic defect. The birthmarks which however are not damaged, sharply increasing it is necessary to pay close attention as there is a risk of their regeneration in malignancies. In that case examination needs to be conducted urgently. A melanoma – the serious disease demanding immediate treatment. It should be noted that it is impossible to get rid of pigmentation which is a symptom of a certain disease until the reason of its emergence is defined. After that treatment of a basic disease is appointed. In this case the bleaching procedures, as a rule, are useless.