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December 14, 2011
Anthrax – it poured is purulent - necrotic inflammatory process which develops deeply in layers of a hypoderma and a derma. The inflammation also mentions hair follicles, nearby. Fundamental difference of an anthrax from a furuncle consists that at an anthrax the big area is formed much more is purulent - necrotic infiltrate, besides it extends in the layers of a derma and a hypoderma located more deeply.
There is a name "anthrax" from the Greek word carbo designating "coal". This defeat is called ugleviky because of dark color of big sites of a necrosis which appear at a current it is purulent - a necrotic inflammation. As a rule, an anthrax is localized on back part of a neck, waist, back.
The causative agent of an anthrax is generally golden staphylococcus though in certain cases can provoke developing of an anthrax also other types of staphylococcus. This pathology is often shown at the general exhaustion of an organism which arose because of constant malnutrition or recently postponed serious illness of the general character. Also disturbance of exchange processes, especially problems with an exchange of carbohydrates at patients with a diabetes mellitus can provoke developing of an anthrax. Also promote development of a disease of disturbance in functioning of a gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, a liver. The anthrax develops against the general avitaminosis. Often defeat is shown on dirty sites of skin where there is its friction about clothes.
At an early stage of a disease in an integument it is possible to probe several plotnovaty small knots located separately, but merging in one infiltrate. Gradually infiltrate becomes more extensive, sometimes its area reaches enough big sizes. The defeat surface, as a rule, has semi-spherical shape. In the place of an anthrax the integument strongly strains, and in the center of infiltrate skin color becomes cyanotic. The patient feels pain in the place where there was a defeat. This stage of development of a disease proceeds about 8-12 days. After that in the place of infiltrate several pustules appear. Their tires are opened then on their place openings appear. At this stage the anthrax reminds a sieve, and, through openings pus and greenish necrotic allocations in which blood impurity are found begins to be emitted. Over time in the central sites of an anthrax the necrosis begins to develop. After the died-off mass of skin is torn away, there is quite extensive defect of fabric in the form of a deep ulcer. In especially serious cases depth of an ulcer can reach a muscle. This stage of development of defeat can proceed from 14 to 20 days. After that the ulcer is filled by granulyatsionny fabric, and on site an anthrax there is a deep hem which is accustomed to drinking with the subject fabrics. The hem looks rather rough. Hems will remain on skin and after carrying out the operation appointed concerning an anthrax.
As a rule, on skin there is single anthrax. Development of such defeat is accompanied by high temperature. The person feels very severe pains having the pulling character, a fever and a febricula. In certain cases the anthrax proceeds zlokachestvenno. Similar pathology is shown at people of advanced age, at the patients staying in a condition of exhaustion owing to a diabetes mellitus or psychological reexhaustions. At such conditions of the patient can feel pains of neurologic character. Manifestation of nonsense, deep prostration, fever of septic character is also possible.
Complications of an anthrax
If in the course of disease profuse bleeding from a large vessel develops, then the lethal outcome is possible. The death can occur also owing to development of sepsis. If the anthrax arises in an upper lip or a nose, then owing to an illness heavy meningeal complications can be shown.
Diagnosis of an anthrax
Diagnosis of an anthrax is made rather simply. Doctors pay attention to a possibility of display of an anthracic anthrax at which hypostasis of fabrics is expressed stronger, and in the field of a pustule there is a black scab which reminds coal. In this case at laboratory researches find an infestant in a human body — an aerobic gram-positive anthracic stick. To distinguish an anthrax from a furuncle the doctor considers manifestation of the symptoms described above.
Treatment of an anthrax
If the anthrax has the small size, is on extremities or a trunk, at the same time there is no pronounced intoxication of an organism, it is possible to treat diseases on an outpatient basis. If treatment happens at an initial stage, that is after formation of inflammatory infiltrate, to the patient carrying out antibacterial therapy is appointed. Reception of antibiotics of a broad spectrum of activity, and also synthetic antibacterial drugs of a broad spectrum of activity is generally appointed. To the patient drugs with analgesic influence, cardiacs are appointed in parallel. At a similar disease advise the patient to adhere to a milk and vegetable diet. The struck surface it is necessary to process 70% alcohol and to apply it an aseptic bandage. Also at treatment ultra-violet radiation is successfully applied, UVCh-therapy is used. If the correct complex of treatment is appointed, then already two-three days later the return development of infiltrate is observed. At the same time at the patient pain decreases, temperature returns to normal, the overall picture of blood improves.
If treatment begins at a stage of forming of the center of a necrosis, to the patient operational treatment is appointed. If the anthrax of the small size was formed, then the surgery is made under local anesthesia. The anthrax is dissected crosswisely and the necretomy is carried out. After that every day it is necessary to change bandages (for bandages hypertonic salt solution of sodium chloride, proteolytic enzymes is used). During the postoperative period antibacterial therapy, physical therapy is shown.
If the person sees a doctor with an anthrax of rather big size, at the same time the specialist defines progressing is purulent - necrotic process, a diabetes mellitus, the increasing intoxication, then the patient is immediately hospitalized. It is very important to carry out in a hospital of treatment of an anthrax which is on a surface of the person.
This disease is characterized is purulent - necrotic defeat with the subsequent emergence of limited infiltrate in a kidney. The anthrax of a kidney can be shown as primary disease owing to an extensive bacterial invasion from the suppurative focus located remotely. The anthrax can be opened later in a pelvis or in perinephric cellulose and thereof the purulent paranephritis is shown. Some specialists define a kidney anthrax as a form of acute pyelonephritis. Causative agents of an anthrax of a kidney — golden and white staphylococcus, proteas, colibacillus. Very often the anthrax of a kidney is shown after obstruction of a large final vessel in a kidney by the microbic embolus getting with blood from the inflammation center. The anthrax of a kidney happens both single, and multiple. As a rule, it develops in a kidney in a bast layer, but happens that the anthrax gets also into a medulla. At late stages there is its purulent fusion. The main symptoms of an anthrax of a kidney are the feeling of sharp manifestation of weakness, blanching of skin. At the person temperature rises, very strong fever is shown and pouring sweat is emitted. Arterial pressure is lowered.
It is difficult to diagnose a similar state. Blood test on the maintenance of leukocytes is for this purpose used: at this state the massive leukocyturia is shown. Carry in addition out the test of identification in peripheral blood of activated lymphocytes. Also tracer techniques are used radiological.
In the course of treatment antibacterial therapy is appointed, but the main method of therapy is the surgery. At in time the carried-out surgical intervention the illness recovers.
Prevention of an anthrax
As measures of prevention of an anthrax it is always necessary to keep clean integuments and underwear. It is important to maintain the general immunity of an organism, not to allow developing of the diseases provoking an anthrax.