Caries of teeth

The term "caries" has a Latin origin and is translated as "rotting". Caries by right is considered one of the most eurysynusic illnesses. And, learned to treat him relatively recently. Earlier the full odontectomy was considered as the only method of treatment of caries. Modern methods of therapy of a disease allow to rescue even the tooth which is strongly affected with caries.

As WHO testifies, caries affected teeth approximately at 98% of adults. It is interesting that in the developed countries caries is widespread much more, than in Third World countries.

Predisposition to caries

Scientists aim to understand for a long time why at one people caries of teeth is shown more often, and at others — is much more rare. Now it is considered to be that carious process depends on individual resistance to a disease of both tooth tissues, and a human body in general. Caries of foreteeth often develops in those places where the plaque – between teeth is late and collects, on an internal surface. The disease affects all teeth which the person has: it appears on foreteeth, often destroys a wisdom tooth, in the started cases display of caries of a fang is possible, and caries of temporary teeth is diagnosed for children.

Besides, the course of a disease depends also on quality of an adamantine substance of tooth, composition of saliva, the correct functioning of sialadens, features of a chewing of food. The favor to caries is influenced also by too frequent consumption by modern people of carbohydrates.

Besides, there is a number of the factors influencing development of this disease. It is allocated professional, geographical, age, sexual factors. So, if the person closely works with alkalis, acids and other harmful substances, then the disease affects his teeth much more often. The geographical factor is shown that in the different countries of the world the frequency of incidence of caries strongly varies. Conclusions of scientists demonstrate that it is explained by features of drinking water, in particular content of fluorine in it.

The age factor is expressed by the fact that activity of an illness sharply increases after the child is two years old. Researches demonstrate that activity of caries decreases only after 40 flyings. It is necessary to consider also a sexual factor. So, at women teeth are surprised caries much more often. First of all, it happens because of pregnancy, and also breastfeeding. Also some specialists are inclined to consider that women use more sweet, as caries provokes.

Symptoms

Зубная боль при кариесеTooth caries at the person develops under the influence of some conditions. The cariogenic microflora, the regular use in food of digestible carbohydrates, ignoring of hygiene of an oral cavity, failures in work of immune system can provoke its emergence.

Gradually progressing, caries at children and adults initially destroys enamel, further there is a destruction of a dentine then caries gets into a pulp. In that case deep caries passes into a pulpitis which can develop into periodontitis later.

As caries of teeth looks, at the first stage of its development of the patient cannot see as pathological process during this period takes place imperceptibly. But the specialist easily defines signs of an onset of the illness thanks to what it is possible to warn superficial caries. During this period there is an enamel decalcification, the dentine is gradually bared owing to what color of tooth changes. It can blacken, become brown or pretty. At this particular time, at the initial stage of a disease the prevention of caries allowing to slow down its development is very important.

But if caries continues to affect tooth, then a bit later already patient can find his classical signs. In tooth the cavity is formed, the person suffers from high sensitivity to hot, cold, sweet. In more started cases the dentagra which is gradually becoming more and more intensive begins to disturb. Extent of damage of tooth already such is that caries can be distinguished with the naked eye and even to see on a photo. Unfortunately, most often the patient reflects how to get rid of a disease, already during developing of pain when in house conditions to stop it it is difficult.

Classification

Кариес зубов у мужчинModern stomatologists classify caries depending on localization of carious cavities and depth of defeat.

Initial stage of an illness is caries in a spot stage. In this case on teeth there are sites which underwent demineralization. The reasons of such phenomenon – loss of mineral substances tooth tissues. In particular, salts of calcium are lost and the structure of enamel is broken. Such changes on tooth are reversible, however tactics how to struggle with caries at this stage, the doctor defines. At this stage it is important to recover structure of enamel of tooth qualitatively.

The second stage — superficial and average caries at which development and on lateral, on foreteeth carious cavities appear that is in enamel there are irreversible changes. If at superficial caries process affects only enamel, then at an average it strikes also a dentine. At this stage of people already complains of the pain arising owing to influence of chemical and thermal irritants. Also superficial and average caries of a milk tooth is diagnosed for children.

The subsequent stage is deep caries at which the cavity in tooth becomes deeper, and process reaches already a pulp. Pain becomes more intensively, it sharply begins at influence of an irritant. In the course of survey the doctor finds very deep cavity with a softened dentine.

 Very heavy caries lateral or a foretooth is separately allocated. In this case tooth is surprised along edge of a gum (so-called radical caries). Sometimes, making the decision how to get rid of such defeat, the doctor is forced to extract tooth.

Milk caries affects milk teeth at children. So-called bottle caries develops on foreteeth of the child owing to the wrong diet or disturbance of standards of hygiene.

Separately allocate also other types of caries: secondary, multiple, root.

At secondary (recurrent) caries the disease repeatedly develops in earlier sealed up tooth. As a rule, low-quality removal of the struck fabrics, the wrong installation of a seal becomes the reason of such phenomenon. Sometimes secondary caries develops also owing to disturbances of standards of hygiene, and also because of influence of other factors having to caries. Such caries develops at edge of a seal.

Multiple caries develops spontaneously and at once affects several teeth (sometimes to 20). At the same time in one tooth several cavities can be found. The illness is considered acute and demands immediate intervention of the doctor. Otherwise it is possible to lose all dentition. This form of an illness arises as an immunity disturbance effect, and also chronic and infectious illnesses.

Root caries affects a fang which was bared. This form of an illness is diagnosed for elderly patients. The matter is that with age the risk of development of a periodontal disease increases, the gingiva decreases, department of saliva decreases. Development of caries of a fang sometimes leads to a complete fracture of tooth.

Caries at children

Кариес зубов распространен у детейChildren's caries, both milk, and second teeth, has high activity as tooth tissues during this period very low resilience to defeat is observed by a disease. For this reason treatment of caries at children needs to be carried out at once after detection of a problem.

Caries of milk teeth develops under the influence of unfavorable conditions – changes of microflora in a mouth owing to first dentition at children, deficit of fluorine in an organism. Sometimes forming of tissues of milk teeth is broken even during pre-natal development. Caries often develops owing to local increase in acidity that promotes enamel dissolution. To prevent this process, the stomatologist has to perform careful inspection then methods of treatment and prevention are defined.

The most often milk caries affects at the child painters (molars). On extent of defeat there are cutters, canines further. Most often caries of milk teeth develops on their contact surfaces. And here second teeth are surprised on chewing surfaces more often.

The main feature of caries at children is speed of its distribution. In view of the fact that tooth enamel at the child very thin, milk teeth are surprised very quickly, caries destroys enamel and takes a dentine then complications are shown.

Often at children plurality of defeat is noted: caries already in the early childhood often develops on several teeth. It quickly progresses, and soon there are only fangs as crowns collapse. In this case parents have to think of how to treat caries seriously. If not to cure it timely, then in 3-4 years can already not remain with the child teeth. The illness often affects milk teeth at children in process of a prorezyvaniye. Therefore, whether treatment needs to strike milk teeth, parents should have no doubts in. The experienced stomatologist not only will define how treat caries at such defeat, but also will recommend to conduct examination of the kid regarding chronic and infectious illnesses. You should not worry also about whether it is painful to the child in the course of treatment. The address to the qualified specialist will help to avoid inconveniences and stresses.

Often at kids so-called circular caries develops. It affects foreteeth, initially develops on a front surface and very quickly progresses. Further defeat extends on a crown circle, goes deep, and the crown of tooth is broken off.

At plane caries at children defeat extends not deep into, and on a surface. Process can be both fast (acute), and chronic.

Very important point is treatment of deep caries at children. If the previous stages of a course of a disease were passed, and caries affected tooth too deeply, then immediate intervention of the doctor is necessary. Gave that this form of both acute, and chronic caries quickly passes into a pulpitis stage.

If at the child second teeth already begin to appear, then parents should pay regularly attention to their standing and to practice preventive campaigns to the stomatologist. Caries of not created second teeth in view of an insufficient mineralization of fabrics, and also reduced protective function mainly happens acute. Therefore, the child can lose a second tooth already in half a year after emergence of caries. When tooth was created, at the child chronic caries develops more often.

Treatment

Treatment of caries of teeth and the choice of a certain method has direct dependence on what stage of development of caries is diagnosed. The modern equipment which is widely used by domestic stomatology allows to cure even the started illness forms. However an optimal variant is treatment of superficial caries when complications did not arise yet. Average caries, and also caries of milk teeth at children will well respond to treatment also. But each person has to realize accurately that at the first visible changes or at emergence of other symptoms it is necessary to address the specialist, but not to wait or try to manage folk remedies.

Out of doubts, ideal option – the regular routine inspections allowing not to allow developments even of superficial defeat and to do without drill. Also the fact that treatment cost at the first stage of defeat will be much lower is important. However, at the choice of methods of patients are interested not only they the price, but also efficiency. The modern stomatology allows to get rid of small defeats without drilling. At early stages the Icon system – processing by the special gel allowing to suspend process practices. Also treatment is applied by ozone and the laser. Ozonotherapy is effective at superficial caries. Its use allows to disinfect a surface of tooth and at the same time to avoid pain. Treatment by the laser – rather new method which allows to avoid use of a drill and at the same time to treat tooth effectively and without pain.

If it is about caries in a spot stage, then initially it needs to be found. For this purpose apply the special crystal dye having green nacreous color and painting exclusively affected areas of tooth. The therapy essence at this stage consists in saturation by minerals of tissues of tooth. The drugs containing in structure potassium ions, calcium, magnesium and other minerals are for this purpose used. Previously tooth is cleared, protected from access of saliva and apply on it solution of remineralizing drug. The course of such treatment proceeds about 10 days.

Treatment of all other types of caries assume initial machining of a carious cavity. At first it is necessary to remove the struck fabrics then closing of a carious cavity and recovery of color and a shape of tooth by means of a seal is carried out.

Treatment of average caries and deep caries is carried out step by step. Diagnosis for definition of extent of defeat is initially carried out. Further the doctor does anesthesia and opens a carious cavity. The subsequent process of a nekroektomiya assumes full clarification of a carious cavity from the fabrics affected with caries. Further the softened dentine and nekrotizirovanny fabrics by means of boron and other tools is removed. The doctor finally creates a carious cavity and seals up tooth the chosen material.

Deep caries at which the patient already has a constant pain is the most difficult to treat. Acute process destroys tooth quickly therefore its treatment has to be especially careful. In this case anesthesia is surely carried out. The doctor carries out all subsequent manipulations according to the usual scheme. It is possible to consider process of its work on step-by-step photos in more detail.

Prevention

Профилактика кариеса зубовPrevention of caries is not only the actions allowing not to allow displays of caries of teeth, but also timely treatment of an illness at the earliest stages. Besides preventive treatment allows to prevent further destruction of tooth. So, for example, treatment of cervical caries gives the chance to suspend process advance deep into and to actually rescue tooth.

Preventive measures have to provide increase of stability of tooth. It is also important to prevent emergence of a plaque on teeth.

In spite of the fact that most of people usual brushes teeth every day, very many make this procedure incorrectly. It is important to do it so that at all the edge of a gum was not damaged. It is necessary to pick up correctly a brush and to brush teeth roundabouts or to do it so that the movements went from a gingiva to edge of tooth.

It is necessary to brush teeth every day twice: in the morning, after meal, and in the evening, before withdrawal to a dream. Process has to take not less than 4 minutes. It is regularly necessary to apply a dental floss by means of which the food remains from spaces between teeth are removed.

After each meal it is recommended to rinse a mouth, and, it needs to be done very carefully. Such action to prevent an adverse effect of carbohydrates on an adamantine substance of tooth.

The food which is eaten by the person can also influence development of caries. Not to allow its development, it is important to eat constantly the firm food capable to clear tooth and to improve blood supply. The products containing phosphorus, calcium, fluorine have to enter a diet surely. It is periodically necessary to use toothpastes as a part of which there is a fluorine.

If all rules of prevention are followed daily, then the risk of development of caries significantly decreases. One more important point in this list – regular visit of the experienced stomatologist who will find a course of a disease at the earliest stages.

Section: Stomatology
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Education: "Pharmacy" graduated from the Rovno state basic medical college majoring in. Graduated from the Vinnytsia state medical university of M. I. Pirogov and internship on its base.

Experience: From 2003 to 2013 – worked at positions of the pharmacist and manager of a pharmaceutical booth. It is awarded by diplomas and distinctions for long-term and honest work. Articles on medical subject were published in local editions (newspaper) and on various Internet portals.