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The cataract is a disease of eyes which is most eurysynusic among elderly people. The crystalline lens of a human eye is a peculiar "natural lens" which passes and refracts rays of light. It is in an eyeglobe of the person and is located between a vitreous and an iris. When the person is young, his crystalline lens differs in elasticity and transparency. As a result, the form of a crystalline lens can change without problems, and sight is perfectly focused both on neighbors, and on distant objects.
At a disease of a cataract there is a process of an either a partial, or full phacoscotasmus. Therefore, transparency of a crystalline lens is lost, and not all light beams can get into an eye. In that case sight worsens, objects which are seen by the person become indistinct and indistinct. Over time the illness progresses owing to what opacification occupies more extensive area. And if treatment is not made timely, then the person will be able to lose sight completely.
The disease can affect the person of any age. At the same time distinguish several different forms of a cataract: inborn, complicated, traumatic, beam, and also a cataract which is provoked by the general diseases. However most often the age cataract – the illness characteristic of the people who crossed a fifty-year boundary is diagnosed for patients. There are data that in the world about 17 million people have a cataract.
In development of a cataract the biochemical players of a crystalline lens are changed, blood supply and food worsens. Owing to these processes the crystalline lens becomes opaque and more dense. As a result owing to hit in an eye only of small part of light beams of the patient sees much worse, perceiving surrounding objects as if "in a veil".
The first symptoms of a cataract can be individual for each patient. However most often symptoms of a cataract is the obscured sight, considerable deterioration in sight at night. At the patient before eyes strokes, spots, strips often flash, he notes high sensitivity to bright light. Gradually it becomes difficult for person to read a small print, to sew, do other exact work. Besides, symptoms of a cataract is doubling in eyes, weak color perception, distortion of visible objects. At the same time the person, a sick cataract, with great difficulty chooses to himself suitable glasses.
The cataract gradually develops, and in the course of its progressing the pupil of the person gradually gets gray, grayish-white or is pure - a white shade. It is dependent on that, opacification how intensively progresses, visual acuity of the patient with a cataract decreases. Patients with a cataract often complain of a special susceptibility of light, noting that environment became more dim.
Depending on that, opacification is how brightly expressed and, respectively, sight decreased, allocate several stages of a cataract: initial, expressed, mature, overripe.
Aging of a human body owing to which there is a number of disturbances of endocrine character is the main reason of display of a cataract. The metabolism is broken, avitaminosis, a diabetes mellitus and other diseases is shown. Besides, origins of a cataract it is considered to be influence of genetic predisposition, various diseases of eyes, traumatism, long treatment as some medicines. Eye diseases — glaucoma, short-sightedness of high degrees, etc. become a cataract origin also often. Also the microwave oven and ultra-violet radiation, high radiation, an ecological factor, poisonings of toxic character can exert a negative impact.
Owing to the changes happening in a crystalline lens the blindness and a slabovideniye at children is observed. Such changes happen as acquired, and inborn. Today inborn cataract is one of the most often found visual impairments at newborn children. The illness can affect both one, and both eyes. At the same time other pathologies can accompany a disease also.
It is accepted to allocate several different types of an inborn cataract. At a kapsulyarny cataract the isolated opacification of a front or back bag of a crystalline lens is observed. At the same time opacification can have the different form and the size. Depending on the size of opacification of a capsule sight level decreases. Similar pathology often develops in connection with diseases which the woman had in the course of pregnancy or in view of pre-natal inflammations.
At a polar cataract the disease affects both a capsule, and crystalline lens substance at back or front poles. In this case the bilateral cataract prevails. The size and a form of defeat can be various.
Most often the layered cataract which generally happens bilateral occurs at babies. Defeat at this form of a disease is located in the center, around a kernel. In this case decrease in sight is always observed.
The cataract nuclear is shown on both eyes. This pathology often has character of a hereditary disease. Sight decreases very much considerably. However in case of opacification restriction with an embryonal kernel of a problem with sight can be insignificant.
At a full cataract both eyes are surprised. In this case symptoms of a cataract can be various. They directly depend on what extent of cataract is observed at the patient. If the cataract affects a crystalline lens completely, its opacification is observed. The child has only a feeling of light. Similar pathology develops both till the child's birth, and in the first months of his life. The full cataract is mainly combined also by other pathologies of eyes. Sometimes the full cataract resolves independently. In that case in the field of a pupil there is a film (the filmy cataract develops).
The complicated cataract is shown at the child owing to a viral rubella, a galactosemia, diabetes and other illnesses. Very often it is accompanied by other heavy pathologies.
Disturbances of metabolic character, existence at mother of a diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases in the first trimester of pregnancy become origins of an inborn cataract.
Doctors determine an inborn cataract by some visible signs. In the field of a pupil of the child the opacification reminding a disk or a point is visible. Perhaps also existence of visible diffusion opacification of a pupil. Besides, at a cataract at the child the nystagmus, squint is observed. On achievement of two-month age the child cannot focus a look on faces of people and on objects, it has no reaction of tracking a certain thing. Examining a toy, the child always turns to it the same eye.
Besides, at an inborn cataract it can not be observed in general any visible symptoms of a disease. Therefore the child should be shown to the ophthalmologist without fail.
Diagnosis of a cataract
Establishment of the diagnosis in case of a cataract for specialists comes easy. It is put, based on data of the anamnesis, and also on features of a course of a disease. However in certain cases to the patient is shown to pass some additional researches which promote more exact definition of a condition of the patient. So, the recommended researches is biomicroscopic examination, determination of visual acuity, and also research in the passing light.
Treatment of an inborn cataract
By means of early establishment of the diagnosis it is possible to pick up individual system of treatment of the child which will give the most noticeable effect. If the cataract is located in such a way that sight of the child can normally develop at the same time, then treatment can not be required at all. However in this case regular supervision is necessary. In case of an obstacle it is required to sight development, as soon as possible to remove a cataract. As conservative treatment in this case is inefficient, it is necessary to apply a surgical method of therapy.
Treatment of an age cataract
It is important to consider that the cataract is irreversible process therefore conservative therapy in this case does not bring essential results. By means of some medicamentous means it is possible to suspend progress of a disease only. At purpose of medicamentous means for treatment of a cataract the general condition of the patient, existence at it other diseases, and also the reasons for which at the patient the cataract developed is surely considered. Generally drugs against a cataract are used in the form of drops for eyes. Drops senkatalin, kvinaks, Vitaphakolum, katakhry, taufon are most often applied. Such drugs contain vitamins, inorganic salts, biogenic stimulators. Besides at treatment of a cataract means which part glyutaminovy acid, Riboflavinum, ascorbic acid is are often used.
Treatment of a cataract assumes surgical intervention. Now it is possible to perform operation at any stage of an illness. Operation assumes replacement of a muddy crystalline lens by artificial. As a result sight at the person is completely recovered.
There are many modern surgical methods of treatment of a cataract. The least traumatic is removal of a cataract by means of a fakoemulsifikation with implantation of a folding lens today. In this case the small section practices. Similar operation is successfully applied at different stages of an illness, can be applied to treatment of a cataract at people of any age. Surgical intervention is carried out on an outpatient basis.
In several hours after carrying out a fakoemulsifikation of people sees normally, and the complete recovery of sight happens over one week. During the postoperative period of people has to protect eyes from strong tension, not bend sharply and not to raise weight, to watch that there were no sharp temperature drops of air that negatively influences eyes. An eye at first after operation it is impossible to rub. Besides, abuse of alcoholic beverages for one month after operation is forbidden.
If the person is disturbed by bright light, some time it is possible to wear sunglasses.
During the postoperative period the doctor in an individual order appoints use of drops for eyes. It is important to adhere strictly to all recommendations of the specialist that recovery of sight was full.
Prevention of a cataract
As preventive measures for prevention of development of a cataract doctors recommend to use enough vitamin-containing products: for health of eyes vitamins B, With and E are the most important. Specialists recommend to use every day several portions of fresh vegetables and fruit. Polyvitaminic complexes are also recommended for periodic reception as a preventive course for prevention of diseases of eyes. Today the confirmed fact is dependence of developing of a cataract on existence at a sick diabetes mellitus. Therefore it is important to control the content of sugar in blood, and also a body weight. The reason of diabetes obesity becomes frequent.
There is also proved opinion that smoking becomes risk factor of development of a cataract. Therefore refusal of this addiction reduces risk of a disease. Too frequent alcohol intake similarly increases risk of developing of a disease. Ultraviolet radiation also negatively influences a condition of a crystalline lens. Therefore, eyes need to be protected from too bright sun.
Section: Diseases of eyes