And whether you know...
Colitis is a disease at which there is an inflammatory process of a mucous membrane of a large intestine. The inflammation can pass both in acute, and in a chronic form. It is provoked by both chronic inflammations of intestines, and an infection which cause viruses and bacteria. Colitis symptoms sometimes complicate inflammatory processes of a stomach or small bowels. This disease is taken in certain cases for a syndrome of the angry intestines in view of similarity of signs. But at development of a syndrome of the angry intestines of communication with a large intestine it is not observed.
The continuous use of food which difficult is digested of alcoholic beverages, spicy food becomes most frequent the colitis reason. Also lead chronic locks owing to which at the person the fecal remains collect to developing of colitis. Sometimes colitis develops as a result of disturbance of health regulations as an allergy to a certain food. Colitis of intestines it becomes frequent reaction to an emotional stress, to intestinal infections, to their wrong treatment.
Acute colitis is rather often shown in combination with an acute coloenteritis — an inflammation of a mucous membrane of a small bowel. Sometimes also diagnose a gastroenterocolitis for the patient – a stomach inflammation.
Causative agents of acute colitis are salmonellas, shigellas, in more exceptional cases its emergence is provoked by other bacteria and viruses. Also acute colitis can develop as a result of food poisonings of not bacterial character, constant rough errors in everyday food.
To a lesser extent developing of acute colitis is influenced by systemic infections, toxic substances, allergic reactions. The inflammation in a large intestine is shown as a result of local influence of factors which injure a mucous membrane of a gut. These substances are in the masses which contain in intestines, or can arrive in the hematogenous way there, and influence a condition of a gut after allocation by a mucous membrane.
Symptoms of acute colitis
At acute colitis of people, first of all, feels increase of pain which has the pulling or spastic character. Except pain, in this case also other symptoms of colitis are shown: at the patient strongly hums in a stomach, he loses appetite, suffers from constantly shown diarrhea, complains of a condition of a febricula. The liquid chair with slime, sometimes with blood is constantly allocated. If the disease passes in a severe form, the chair can be watery, and its frequency can reach twenty times a day. Besides, often there are painful tenesmus, that is false desires to defecation. Body temperature increases up to 38 degrees, sometimes rises above. Symptoms of the colitis proceeding in especially severe form supplement symptoms of the general intoxication, dryness of the language which is laid over by a grayish plaque. Abdominal distention is observed, but if a diarrhea very strong, the stomach can be involved. During a palpation the large intestine is painful, and in its different departments rumbling is felt. In the course of research by a rektoromanoskopiya method the doctor defines at the patient a hyperemia and hypostases of a mucous membrane in distal departments of a large intestine. Slime, sometimes pus is present at gut walls. Existence of erosion, hemorrhages, ulcerations is also possible.
If acute colitis proceeds benign, then improvement can independently come. At severe forms of an illness it has a long current. Owing to acute colitis at the person a number of complications can be shown later: it is a pyelitis, liver abscesses, sepsis, peritonitis.
Chronic colitis fairly is considered one of the most widespread illnesses of the alimentary system. This disease can often be combined with an inflammation of a small bowel and a stomach.
The chronic colitis having an infectious origin is caused by causative agents of intestinal infections, generally shigellas and salmonellas. Can provoke development of a disease also other mycobacteria, and also opportunistic and saprophytic flora of intestines. Helminths can also support an intestines inflammation. Most often chronic colitis which has a noninfectious origin are diagnosed for people.
So, alimentary colitis of intestines is shown because of gross violation of food, and also owing to irrational food. The accompanying colitis arises as maintenance of gastritises, pancreatitis, chronic enterit. This form of a disease as an effect of constant irritation of a mucous membrane of a large intestine which is provoked by products of incomplete digestion of food. Also accompanying colitis can arise as result of dysbacteriosis. Toxic colitis – a consequence of influence of intoxications chemical compounds. Medicinal colitis arises in view of the long and uncontrolled use of certain drugs – antibiotics, purgatives and other drugs.
Ischemic colitis is segmented damage of a large intestine which arises because of disturbance of blood supply of body. Allergic colitis often arises at people who have food allergy, and also at those who do not transfer certain chemical and medicines, has high sensitivity of an organism to bacterial flora of intestines.
The diagnosis "chronic colitis" can be established by means of a number of researches. The irrigoskopiya, endoscopic research, laboratory analyses is for this purpose carried out.
Chronic colitis proceeds in the progressing form, as a rule, the forecast is adverse. As complications of a disease often there is a necrosis of a site of a gut and the subsequent peritonitis, intestinal bleedings.
Symptoms of chronic colitis
At chronic colitis the person most often has a damage of a large intestine in general (pan-colitis). Colitis symptoms in this case are shown by disturbance of a chair (there can be both a chronic diarrhea, and a lock). Besides, patients suffer from an abdominal pain, painful tenezm, a meteorism. As a rule, at chronic colitis, especially right-hand, severe diarrhea is observed. The chair can arise to fifteen times a day, at the same time the person feels that intestines are emptied not up to the end. If process escalates, the patient feels false desires on defecation. At it gases, lumps of fecal masses with slime, sometimes with blood periodically depart. If at the person the spastic colitis is observed, then the kcal looks fragmented. The similar symptom is shown if distal departments of a large intestine are involved in inflammatory process. At a spastic colitis defecation happens in indefinite time. Besides, patients with a spastic colitis have headaches, sleeplessness, fast fatigue.
At chronic colitis in the course of X-ray inspection in a large intestine the delay of contrast weight is observed. The disease proceeds long time, flying sometimes is a lot of.
Pain at chronic colitis, as a rule, aching, stupid. They arise in the bottom of a stomach and in its lateral departments. Sometimes use of heat helps to reduce pain. Painful attacks often are followed by desires to defecation and a passage of flatus. If the inflammation extends to a serous cover of a large intestine, then constant pain can amplify when walking and when the person adopts the lying provision, it abates. Pain of the aching character which extends on all stomach are sometimes shown regardless of food, defecation. Patients with colitis have also constant meteorism arising as a result of problems with digestion of food in a small bowel and also because of dysbacteriosis. Besides, symptoms of colitis of a chronic form often is nausea, anorexia, an eructation, presence of bitterness at a mouth, a constant abdominal murmur. As a result, at the person weakness is observed, working capacity decreases, the polyhypovitaminosis and anemia is shown.
Ulcer colitis chronic and often recurrent disease. From 20 to 40 years are most often shown at people of young age, also increase in cases of an illness at patients is noted 55 years are more senior. At ulcer colitis a number of characteristic symptoms is observed: diarrhea, a lock, pain in a stomach, intestinal bleedings. Besides, there is fever and nausea, the weight of the patient is gradually lost, the person feels strong weakness and fatigue. Symptoms amplify if weight and extent of inflammatory changes increases.
At crushing total damage of a large intestine at the patient profuse diarrhea at which at fecal masses there is a significant amount of blood is observed. Often blood comes out rather big clots, before emptying colicy pains in a stomach are shown. At the person anemia, the expressed symptoms of intoxication develops. In this case the disease is fraught with complications which pose hazard to life of the patient. It is perforation of a large intestine toxic megacolon, and severe bleeding in intestines. The most adverse disease is observed at the patients having the fulminant form of ulcer colitis.
In the course of purpose of a course of treatment of ulcer colitis the doctor is guided by a number of individual factors: localization of pathology, its extent, existence of complications. First of all, by means of conservative treatment attack of an illness is prevented, its progress and recurrence is prevented. Ulcer colitis of distal character (a proctitis, a proctosigmoiditis) proceed easily, therefore, these illnesses it is possible to treat in house conditions. Such diseases consider as the most often shown forms of chronic colitis. They mainly arise as a result of bacterial dysentery, chronic locks, constant irritation of a mucous rectum owing to frequent use of candles, enemas. At similar diseases pain arises in ileal area at the left, and also in the field of an anus, the meteorism is shown.
At ulcer colitis it is recommended to eat caloric, mainly proteinaceous food, and also vitamin-containing products. At the same time the amount of animal fats is limited, and rough cellulose of a plant origin is excluded in general.
Diagnosis of colitis
For definition of the diagnosis the superficial and deep palpation of a stomach in the course of which painful sites on an abdominal wall, affected areas of a large intestine and other symptoms of a disease are found is surely carried out.
Besides, with suspicion carrying out an irrigoskopiya, sigmoidoskopiya, rektoromanoskopiya, kolonoskopiya is appointed sick to chronic colitis. In the course of these researches it is possible to find inflammatory process of a mucous membrane of a large intestine, sometimes — purulent, necrotic - cankers.
At acute colitis laboratory analyses reveal a moderate leukocytosis, subfebrile condition, increase of SOE.
In the course of diagnosis it is important to define colitis which has an infectious or parasitic origin. It is important to differentiate chronic colitis from pancreatitis, chronic enterit, anacid gastritises. It is important to consider that the specified diseases often are combined with chronic colitis. Besides, the tumor of a large intestine can "mask" under chronic colitis. If the doctor has a suspicion on this disease, to the patient the irrigoskopiya, and in certain cases — endoscopy with a biopsy is surely appointed.
Treatment of colitis
Medicamentous therapy at colitis is appointed depending on what type of intestinal frustration takes place at the patient. So, if at the person the spastic colitis is observed, then treatment of colitis has to be carried out for the purpose of lowering of peristaltic activity. During an exacerbation of colitis reception of intestinal antiseptic agents is recommended. To weaken a peristaltics, it is necessary to accept spasmolysants of soft action.
Under a constant control of the doctor at treatment in a hospital reception of adrenoblockers and cholinergic means is possible. For the purpose of elimination of excessive production of slime in intestines the knitting and enveloping drugs which, besides, protect intestines from negative effect of slime are used. At the accompanying decrease in acidity of a gastric juice reception of hydrochloric acid or atsidin-pepsin in the course of food is appointed sick.
In the course of treatment of colitis reception of polyvitamins is important. In case of a spastic colitis treatment provides reception of purgatives. Also in the course of treatment of colitis use of cleaning, and also medicinal enemas is used.
If the accompanying exacerbation of chronic gastritis takes place, then for treatment of colitis also antibiotics are appointed.
At treatment of colitis it is very important to adhere to dietary food at which of a diet the fancy bread, fat fish, meat, eggs, dairy products, bean, spices, coffee, alcohol is excluded. However it is important that the diet surely contained all substances necessary for an organism.
Treatment of colitis of an acute form is carried out in a hospital. If at inspection the infection was found, then antibacterial or antiparasitic treatment is foreseen. Besides, doctors recommend not to eat for one or two days food at all. Further it is necessary to adhere to specially developed diet for patients with colitis. Besides, it is recommended to conduct a physical therapy course.
As folk remedies for treatment of colitis it is possible to use infusion of crusts of a water-melon, broths and infusions of a grass of a camomile pharmaceutical, a centaury, a sage. Enemas from camomile broth are also recommended
Prevention of colitis
For prevention of colitis it is important to eat and adhere to a healthy diet properly. The food needs to be chewed very carefully. As prevention of colitis of a chronic form timely therapy of colitis acute is supposed. It is for this purpose important to ask timely for medical assistance, to adhere to dietary food, to be engaged in physical exercises.