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August 20, 2011
Contraception is a method of planning of a family, in particular a way of prevention of undesirable pregnancy. There are several methods of contraception:
- methods of barrier contraception (condoms, Naval Forces, diaphragms, spermitsida);
- hormonal contraception;
- the combined oral contraceptives;
- post-coital contraceptives;
- biological methods;
- surgical contraception (man's and female sterilization, abortion);
Each of these methods is in detail described in separate materials, and within this review article we only in brief will describe the main advantages and shortcomings, features of use, the principle of action of the most popular of them.
Barrier methods of contraception
The condom is one of the most widespread methods of contraception. The main mechanism of action of a condom is creation of a barrier to penetration of sperm into a genital tract of the woman. Condoms are made of rubber or the processed kollagenozny material. The condom is an effective remedy of prevention of diseases, sexually transmitted, it is easy to use them, they can be applied in case of an allergy of the woman to sperm, they have no serious contraindications to use. The main mistake when using a condom is its wrong use therefore it is necessary to put on and remove correctly a condom, to watch its integrity.
Intrauterine contraceptives (Naval Forces) can be various forms, in the form of a loop, an umbrella, a spiral. Naval Forces produce from copper, silver and plastic. The most effective types of intrauterine contraceptives are "the Poppet of T of Ku 380 A" (containing copper), "Mirren" (with progesterone), "Multiload Ku-150". The doctor enters and deletes Naval Forces.
Naval Forces affect a uterus as a foreign body, causing changes of its sokratitelny activity, promote acceleration of a vermicular movement of uterine tubes, moving an ovum to a uterus quicker before the mucous membrane is ready to implantation, the internal cover of a uterus at the same time inflames. Under the influence of it, migration of spermatozoa is broken, accelerating their hit in a cavity of the uterus and death of an oospore.
Their reliability belongs to advantages of Naval Forces, the fact that they can be applied from 2 to 6 years. After removal of Naval Forces ability to conceive is quickly recovered. Some Naval Forces containing progesterone well influence functions of a reproductive system, and can prevent development inflammatory diseases of bodies of a small pelvis. The possibility of development of perforation of a uterus belongs to shortcomings of use of intrauterine means, there is a probability of development of an extrauterine pregnancy, blood loss at periods can increase, the risk of infections of urinogenital bodies, inflammatory processes in a uterus and appendages increases. Contraindications to establishment of intrauterine means are pregnancy, lack of childbirth in the past, inflammations in generative organs, an extrauterine pregnancy in the past, disturbances of a menstrual cycle. It is not necessary to apply Naval Forces and that who has several sexual partners and that who several times had infectious diseases of a genital tract.
Carry spermitsida which kill spermatozoa to methods of local contraception and happen in the form of vaginal candles, ointments, gels, vaginal tablets. This method of contraception can be used during feeding by a breast, and also in combination with other means. As these drugs need to be administered in a vagina before each sexual intercourse, they can lead to vagina dysbacteriosis.
Method of contraception is also introduction of a dome-shaped cap from latex – diaphragms. It is necessary to use a diaphragm from a spermitsidama, at the same time important correctly to enter it. It is entered inside before each sexual intercourse, and it is possible to use it a long time on condition of the correct operation. A lack of use of a diaphragm is that the risk of a disease of cystitis because it presses on the uric canal increases.
Use of hormonal contraceptives allow to prevent an ovulation. Usually they are issued in the form of tablets, a plaster, but can as well to be entered subcutaneously.
Also post-coital (urgent) methods of contraception are also widespread. Different types of contraception which are applied in the first days after the "unprotected" sexual intercourse belong to urgent contraception and prevent pregnancy approach. Similar methods of contraception are applied if the woman very seldom leads sex life (several sexual contacts within a year) as urgent contraception at disturbance of integrity of a condom or shift of a diaphragm if reception of contraceptive tablets, after rape was missed. Efficiency of this method makes 96% if to apply it within 72 hours after the sexual intercourse.
Post-coital drugs allocate high doses of hormone which promote disturbance of synchronism of a menstrual cycle, fertilization process disturbance, and also suppression of an ovulation.
Treat post-coital methods of contraception:
- method of use of a progestinovy contraceptive of postinor which 1 pill is taken within two hours after sexual intercourse, and one more in 12 hours;
- the combined oral contraceptives (Regulon, Germistat, Femenal, Marvelon) when a pill is taken by two equal doses.
Use of these tablets can make also vomiting, sick, disturbances of a menstrual cycle. The similar type of contraception by the suffering thrombophlebitis, liver diseases, a cancer of mammary glands, a uterus is contraindicated.
- method of use of antagonists of progesterone (Mifepristone);
- method of use of anti-gonadotropic drugs (danol, danazol) (it should be noted that two last methods are applied much less often since it is difficult to buy these drugs, in connection with their high cost);
- the method of introduction of an intrauterine contraceptive was (filched) within 5 days after sexual intercourse.
Biological methods of contraception
The biological method of contraception is a traditional method of protection from undesirable pregnancy. This method is based on definition of time of an ovulation and abstention from sexual the intercourses during the preovulatory period. Use of biological control methods of fertility gives the chance to define days of the greatest probability of approach of pregnancy, and these days to abstain from the sexual intercourses or to apply other types of contraception. This method is applied when couples do not want to apply other methods of contraception for any reasons.
4 control methods of fertility are applied:
- calendar (rhythmic) method when the woman conducts a menstrual calendar in which within 8-12 months notes duration of a menstrual cycle. Is defined the longest and short menstrual cycles on the basis of what fertile days are determined;
- the temperature method based on measurement of basal body temperature which decreases before an ovulation and raises before an ovulation;
- the method of cervical slime based on control of change of cervical slime during a menstrual cycle (the Billing method);
- the simptotermalny method is based on an assessment of time of the beginning and duration of the period of fertility, and on maintaining "a menstrual calendar", daily supervision over cervical slime and measurement of basal body temperature.
Biological methods of contraception have advantages, it is their harmlessness, and lack of side reactions. However this method cannot be applied if at the woman irregular menstrual cycles, in the period of a lactation, and also at reception of certain medicines. Also it should be noted that in connection with an assumption of inaccuracies in definition of fertile days, this method is unreliable.
The interrupted sexual intercourse i.e. when the sexual intercourse is interrupted before semen gets into a female genital tract also belongs to biological methods of contraception. The method is quite simple, but has the shortcomings. It has low contraceptive effect, it can lead to development of developments of stagnation in a small basin, to dysfunction of ovaries at women. At men prolonged use of this method can promote decrease in a potentiality, emergence of a neurasthenia.
One of traditional methods of monitoring birth rate is periodic sexual abstinence (abstinence). It is one of ways of contraception and an effective method of protection from diseases, sexually transmitted. To indications to use of abstinence the end of the third trimester of pregnancy, inflammatory diseases of bodies of a basin, uric ways, generative organs, the postoperative period after postponed epiziotomiya, vasectomies are.
Surgical methods of contraception
Also there is a method of voluntary surgical sterilization when in a genital tract create a mechanical obstacle. At men break passability of semyavyvodyashchy channels, women have a passability of uterine tubes. It is possible to carry to shortcomings of this method that the effect of similar operation is almost irreversible. Sterilization by that who has diseases of bodies of a small pelvis, a heart disease, vessels, a diabetes mellitus is contraindicated. Contraceptive efficiency of this method is most big.
Thus, today there is enough ways of protection from undesirable pregnancy. Each of them has the properties, differently affects an organism. Therefore women and married couples should treat the choice of a suitable method of contraception responsibly. Whether it is not dependent biological or surgical methods of contraception are applied planning of a family has to consider interests of both spouses.