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Squint (other names of this state — a strabismus or a geterotropiya) is a definition of any abnormal disturbances in parallelism of visual axes in both eyes. At squint of an eye stay in situation at which visual axes of eyes on a subject on which fixing of a look is made do not cross. At a normality focusing of both eyes is made in one certain point, and the picture from the point of view of each eye is transferred to a brain. Respectively, the brain integrates both images, and the volume image is provided to consciousness. So, if to look at a certain subject with eyes serially, then it will change the situation.
In each eye available up to six muscles providing to eyes the movement. All these muscles are controlled by a brain that provides a look of both eyes in one direction. And for combination of images important that work of all muscles was coordinated.
It is very important to diagnose squint for children as soon as possible. In view of very easy adaptation of the person at children's age the brain of the child sore with squint will constantly receive two pictures, and in one it will not be able to compare them. Because of doubling emergence the brain will begin to suppress one image and to work only with one picture. In rather short time at the child irreparable suppression of sight from an eye which mows results. Also squint at children can provoke development of turn or a ducking for compensation of squint. At the same time those adults who got squint not at children's age, as a rule, have a doubling in view of limited adaptability of a brain at the mature person.
To provoke developing of squint at adults and at children the set of different factors can. The most dangerous period from the point of view of a possibility of development of squint – two-three years when at the child solid vision begins to develop incorrectly. Besides any injuries and diseases can provoke display of squint. Generally squint arises because of problems with sight – far-sightednesses, short-sightedness, an astigmatism, an amblyopia, diseases caused by infections (flu, scarlet fever, diphtheria, measles and dr).
Types of squint
It is accepted to distinguish squint inborn and acquired. In the first case squint is shown at once after the birth or for the first six months of life of the child. In the second – the illness arises to three-year age. In most cases explicit squint happens horizontal. This squint meeting or dispersing. Less often cases of vertical squint meet. If the deviation up is observed, then the state is called a hypertropia, from top to bottom – a hypotropia.
This disease can be divided also on monocular and alternating. At the patient with monocular squint will mow only one eye. Does not use this eye of the patient in general in view of what at such state sight much more decreases. There is brain adaptation: it reads out information only from an eye which does not mow, and the eye mowing does not take part in the visual act therefore its functions sharply decrease. This state is called an amblyopia. In case of impossibility of recovery of sight of the mowing eye squint is corrected for elimination of cosmetic defect.
At alternating squint of the patient uses both eyes, but looks them alternately. At such state the amblyopia, but much lower degree can develop.
From the point of view of an illness origin squint is subdivided on consensual and paralytic. The concomitant strabismus is shown at children. At such form of an illness the full volume of mobility of eyeglobes remains, there is no doubling and there is no disturbance of solid vision. Squint paralytic arises owing to paralysis or injuries of muscles which are responsible for the movement of eyes. Such state is generally shown because of pathologies which affect a brain, nerves or directly muscles. At this state limited mobility of the mowing eye in that party for which the affected muscle "is responsible" is observed. In view of the fact that the image gets on disparatny points of retinas in both eyes, at the patient the diplopia is shown. The state is aggravated in the course of a look in the same party.
The main symptom of squint is the deviation of eyes aside, most often to a nose or to a temple. Most often other symptoms of an illness also occur at patients with squint: constant poporot or a ducking, a prishchurivaniye, doubling in eyes. Eyes, it seems, "float". The similar phenomenon – not a rarity at newborns, however by then when to the child half a year is executed, squint has to disappear completely. Sometimes diagnose imaginary squint for children because of type of an arrangement of eyes and a shape of a nose. After certain time at the child the shape of a nose then expected squint will disappear will change. In view of very good ability to adaptation of a brain children never complain of doubling at squint, unlike adults. To define existence of squint at children, it is necessary to conduct screening researches of children's sight as soon as possible. It is important to consider that early detection of squint gives much more chances of return to the child of normal sight. Parents should realize that if the kid already was six months old, and symptoms of squint at him nevertheless take place, then immediately it is necessary to visit the children's ophthalmologist.
Diagnosis of squint
It is possible to reveal squint in the course of professional survey of the child or the adult patient. After carrying out initial survey careful ophthalmologic research at which tests for solid vision and prismatic lenses are used is conducted.
In the course of diagnosis of squint at children the doctor first of all conducts survey of parents for the purpose of definition, squint how exactly began and whether it was shown suddenly or gradually. The inborn disease is connected, as a rule, with injuries in the course of childbirth, TsNS diseases. The acquired form of squint contacts anomalies of a refraction.
Examining the child, the doctor defines whether forced position of the head, asymmetry of the person, palpebral fissures takes place. By means of survey with lateral lighting, oftalmoskopiya define a condition of front departments of eyes, an eyeground, transparent environments. Also the specialist investigates primary and secondary angles of deviation. Being guided by the anamnesis and objective data, the doctor establishes the developed diagnosis.
Treatment of squint
It is important to consider the fact that the opinion on independent treatment of squint is wrong. Besides in case of lack of the corresponding therapy rather serious complications can develop.
Treatment of squint will be recommended by the specialist ophthalmologist. Today squint treat by both a therapeutic, and surgical method. There is a number of very effective techniques by which treatment of squint is carried out. So, the method of pleoptichesky treatment consists in strengthening of visual loading approximately which mows. An eye which sees worse is stimulated by means of the therapeutic laser, specially developed medical computer programs.
By means of orthoptic treatment of squint binocular activity of eyes thanks to use of computer programs and synoptic devices is recovered. Diploptichesky treatment assumes recovery under natural conditions. At treatment of squint at children also the method of a zakleyka is applied. For this purpose an eye which sees better is closed with the purpose to stimulate work of a brain with the eye seeing worse. Later certain time sight begins to improve. However it is necessary to consider that the effect of a similar method will be swept up only in case of its use at very early age for children at whom the amblyopia did not develop yet. Sometimes to the child with the parallel diagnosis "astigmatism", "short-sightedness", "far-sightedness" the doctor writes out suitable points. In some cases their continuous carrying relieves also of squint.
After selection of optimum tactics of treatment by the specialist therapy should be continued to that age when at the person forming of an organ of sight, that is till 18-25 terminates. In view of disturbance at patients with functioning squint almost everything departments of the visual analyzer it is necessary to apply complex therapy. Use of hardware methods is reasonable to use up to three-four times a year. Such methods of treatment of squint allow to get rid of an amblyopia and to recover bridges between eyes.
Very important that squint at adults and at children treated taking into account all specific features. The doctor defines what tactics of treatment needs to be used only after careful survey and inspection of the patient in the course of which also the sight defeat reason becomes clear. Generally the result of treatment depends on that, how timely it was undertaken and what reasons of squint at the patient.
If all methods of conservative treatment of squint do not bring due result, then it is necessary to resort to surgical treatment. As a rule, operational methods of treatment are offered patients when the effect of conservative therapy is not observed for 1,5-2. An operative measure will help to eliminate squint, however the patient should consider that it will be possible to recover normal functioning of eyes only after long performance of a special set of exercises. Sometimes, that operation is only method of elimination of cosmetic defect, and solid vision even after surgical intervention does not return. Operations are performed with use as the general, and local anesthesia.
The purpose of a surgery is recovery of the correct balance of muscles. After carrying out operation also the subsequent complex of conservative treatment for the purpose of full rehabilitation of functions of sight is surely applied.
Modern methods of treatment of squint on condition of its correct step-by-step carrying out allow to recover functions of sight at the person.
Prevention of squint
For prevention of squint it is very important to undertake treatment of all diseases connected with sight pathologies and also illnesses of infectious character in time. For the purpose of strengthening of eye muscles the special set of exercises is developed for eyes which similarly recommend to apply for the purpose of prevention of emergence of problems with sight. It is necessary to repeat each of the described exercises to 15 times.
Raise a hand up, extend an index finger and slowly bring closer it to a nose tip. At the same time you look after movement of a finger. Similarly move up a finger in the middle and from below.
Spin eyes, "eights", move a look at the left to the right, from top to down.
All games where the ball or a shuttlecock is involved are suitable for training of muscles of eyes. At similar games the look always watches the moving subject.
If you a long time work at the computer or continuously read, then periodically do a break and you look out of the window or on surrounding objects. At the same time at first focus a look on far located objects, and then on those which are close. Similar simple exercises should be done regularly.
Section: Diseases of eyes