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Laryngitis is an inflammatory process of a throat. Generally this state is connected with diseases of catarrhal character or with a number of infectious illnesses at which laryngitis is also shown. Symptoms of a disease can arise at measles, whooping cough, scarlet fever. Also the disease develops owing to overcooling of an organism, oral breath, too dirty air, smoking and an alcohol abuse, and also as a result of a throat overstrain. Laryngitis can proceed as a short-term acute state, and also as a chronic illness. But in most cases the disease quickly enough progresses and passes for two weeks
Acute laryngitis at children and adults usually develops as an independent illness. Overcooling of local character or too strong overstrain of a voice becomes basic reasons of an acute form of laryngitis. As a result, the illness is very often observed at singers, and also teachers and people of other professions which are constantly using a loud voice in work. Also acute laryngitis can arise as display of flu, measles and other infectious illnesses. At the same time inflammatory process can take both a mucous membrane of a throat in general, and mucous an epiglottis, walls of a cavum infraglotticum, voice folds.
The chronic form of a disease is shown as an effect of the acute laryngitis which is regularly repeating at the patient. Also it arises against inflammations in a nose and bosoms of a nose. At people whose profession is connected with use of a voice against frequent developing of acute laryngitis the chronic form of a disease is shown.
At acute laryngitis (a diffuse form) at the patient sharp reddening of a mucous membrane is observed, and near folds of a threshold noticeable swelling is observed. In case of acute laryngitis the mucous membrane of a throat is edematous and hyperemic, phonatory bands are thickened and are closed not completely. In view of vasodilatation owing to an inflammation blood sometimes filters and forms on a mucous membrane of a point of a dark red shade. If at the patient the isolated laryngitis takes place, symptoms are shown differently. So, the redness and an infiltration of a mucous membrane are quite often observed only in an epiglottis. One more form of a disease — laryngotracheitis – is shown if the inflammation passes to a trachea. In this case the patient often suffers from strong fits of coughing, at the same time the phlegm which is produced by a mucous membrane of a trachea and a throat is allocated.
If at the patient acute laryngitis begins to develop, symptoms, first of all, are expressed in the general deterioration a condition of the person. Body temperature increases, at a blood analysis signs of development of an inflammation in an organism are observed.
If the inflammation is localized in an epiglottis or in back throat walls, then when swallowing people can feel pain. The voice changes: it becomes hoarse, and the voice can be gone in more hard cases in general. In view of narrowing of a glottis breath can be at a loss. Also at people with acute laryngitis dryness and the expressed irritation in a throat is shown. In the first days of an illness overcomes dry cough, however later at cough the phlegm already departs. The headache can also accompany an illness. If to exercise in process of treatment judgment and to follow recommendations of the doctor, symptoms of acute laryngitis disappear approximately in a week.
Symptoms of chronic laryngitis are expressed by a hoarseness, fast fatigue of a voice, periodic display of irritation. As a result, the patient constantly coughs. In case of an inflammation aggravation symptoms become stronger.
Types of laryngitis
At catarral laryngitis at the patient the sadneniye in a throat, hoarseness, periodic cough is observed. However this form is considered the easiest.
At hypertrophic laryngitis more expressed hoarseness of a voice, severe irritation and cough is observed. On sheaves growths, of the size of a pin head are observed. It is accepted to call these small knots giving a hoarseness "the singer's small knots". Often laryngitis at children also provokes constant hoarseness, however such state can pass in teenage age because of serious changes of hormonal balance. In this case the same methods of treatment are applied, as at other types of a disease. Perhaps also the cauterization of hillocks silver nitrate solution applied in especially hard cases. But if changes in sheaves are expressed very strongly, then sometimes the sites which underwent defeat delete during a surgery.
Thinning of a mucous membrane in a throat is characteristic of atrophic laryngitis. At patients very painful cough is constantly shown, the voice gets hoarse, dryness in a mouth is shown. If fits of coughing are observed, crusts with blood streaks sometimes depart. As the reason of such form of laryngitis specialists define abuse of spicy food, with spices and seasonings. At the same time defeat takes place not only in a throat, but also on a back wall of a throat.
In case of diphtheritic laryngitis the course of a disease occurs owing to distribution of an infection to a throat from almonds. On a mucous membrane at the same time the plaque of a white membrane is observed, sometimes it separates and corks respiratory tracts at the level of phonatory bands.
At tubercular laryngitis which practically is always a secondary illness. The disease is shown when tuberculosis extends from lungs. In this case in tissues of a throat thickenings in the form of hillocks are shown, besides sometimes the illness progresses before destruction of a guttural cartilage and an epiglottis.
Also laryngitis can be complication at syphilis. At the second stage of a disease sometimes there is forming of plaques and ulcers, and at the third stage the hems deforming phonatory bands and a throat can be formed. As a result the hoarseness can become incurable.
Laryngitis at children to eight-year age sometimes passes into a special form of a so-called false croup. It is shown by the symptoms similar to signs of a true croup (throat diphtheria). In this case danger is constituted by sharp narrowing of a gleam of a throat in view of hypostasis that can complicate breath. The laryngospasm sometimes joins such state. The false croup is most characteristic of the children having exudative diathesis. Such attacks, as a rule, arise promptly, mainly at night. The child can wake up in sweat, complain of difficult breath, it has a "barking" cough, lips become blue. The attack passes approximately through half an hour, at the same time temperature can increase only slightly. Attacks can arise also in the next nights. In this case it is important to call the ambulance immediately. It is possible to help the child before arrival of the doctor by means of the mustard plaster put on area of a throat. It is also possible to make a hot bathtub for legs (39 °), to give warm liquid.
Diagnosis of laryngitis
In the course of diagnosis the doctor initially studies the anamnesis, conducts physical examination and interrogates the patient about character of the beginning and a course of a disease. Careful research of a sound of a voice, and also phonatory bands promotes selection of the correct approach to treatment of a disease. Physical inspection surely includes survey of a throat, mouth, nose for identification of the centers of an inflammation. Also the doctor will probe a neck for detection of the inflamed lymph nodes. These inspections give the chance to define laryngitis type, and also its communication with other diseases.
In the presence of serious problems the doctor can appoint carrying out additional analyses. Sometimes the laringoskopiya with use of the flexible endoscope for inspection of a throat is shown to the patient. When carrying out such inspection the fabric sample fence for the subsequent carrying out a biopsy is possible. It is possible to define existence at the patient of oncological processes by a biopsy.
In the course of video of a laringostroboskopiya the doctor can study vibration of phonatory bands. All other researches are appointed depending on injury of a throat.
It is important to consider that the person who suspects development of laryngitis has to see surely a doctor if symptoms of an illness do not disappear for two weeks, there is a pain giving to an ear swallowing utrudnyatsya, blood is expectorated.
Treatment of laryngitis
Treatment of laryngitis of an acute form has to be directed to elimination of that problem which provoked an illness first of all. To provide absolute rest of a throat, the person is not recommended to talk about a week. If it is impossible, it is necessary to talk as it is possible more quietly and more softly. However it is not recommended to whisper as whispering irritates phonatory bands. It is important not to use some spicy food, the spices irritating a mucous membrane. Also it is impossible to smoke, take alcoholic drinks.
In the course of treatment of laryngitis it is necessary to drink warm liquid, to carry out inhalations, to rinse a throat, and also to warm a neck warm bandages or compresses, to soar legs in a heat bath. Sometimes the specialist appoints reception of medicamentous drugs. As medicamentous therapy the doctor can appoint antibechics, antihistaminic drugs, greasing of a throat Lugol solution in glycerin.
It is important that indoors where there is a patient, it was rather wet and it is warm. In this case steam inhalations which in the first days of an illness it is possible to spend each several hours are also shown. Inhalation has to continue about 15 minutes.
Treatment of laryngitis is also carried out by means of rinsing of a throat by grass broths. In the presence of cold them it is possible to rinse also a nose. Also saline solution in this case will be suitable for rinsing of a nose. For preparation of grass broths often use a grass of an acorus, coltsfoot. It is also possible to rinse a throat potato juice, beet juice with vinegar addition, broth of an onions peel. At laryngitis it is useful to drink alkaline mineral water.
People who have chronic laryngitis have to pass without fail medical inspection after which the doctor defines how to treat laryngitis in this case. Sometimes the doctor appoints carrying out alkaline and oil inhalations, a novocaine electrophoresis to the area of a throat, UVCh. Being guided by the acquired information, the specialist will appoint complex treatment where different procedures can enter: greasing of a throat, inhalation, physiotherapeutic procedures. Treatment by medicamentous drugs and even surgical methods is also in certain cases shown. To prevent displays of chronic laryngitis, it is important to cure laryngitis acute and other diseases of upper respiratory tracts in time. Also the correct voice mode is important.
At acute laryngitis specialists, as a rule, speak about the favorable forecast. However the disease can sometimes pass into a chronic form. Therefore it is very important to address the specialist in time and to consult on him how to treat laryngitis.
Prevention of laryngitis
Prevention of laryngitis means the prevention of the factors leading to development of a disease. Therefore, the healthy lifestyle, the correct approach to a hardening is important. So, it is not recommended to muffle up warm scarfs constantly, however it is not desirable to go into other extremes also. Not less important and healthy nutrition: in particular, it is regularly not necessary to use too hot dishes and to constantly spice them. The people having predisposition to laryngitis cannot take cold drinks and I go on a frost. Also it is necessary to protect a voice: not to shout loudly. And if the profession is connected with voice, then it is regularly necessary to remember the sparing treatment of him.
It is not less important to avoid stay in strongly contaminated, dusty rooms. If work is connected with the similar unpleasant moments, it is necessary to air the room constantly. Inhalation will help to remove dust particles from a mucous membrane.
Section: Diseases of an ear throat-nose