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Medical foods at a diabetes mellitus
Sugar diabetes is a disease of endocrine system of the person which is caused by a lack of a pancreas hormone organism – insulin, shown in disturbances of carbohydrate, proteinaceous and fatty exchanges. One of disease forms diabetes of the 1st type — "insulin-dependent", complications after the postponed viral infections can be the main origin of this form, for example, of flu, herpes, and also a zhelchekamenny illness. The factors promoting a disease of the person of diabetes of the 2nd type — "non-insulin-dependent", are genetic predisposition, and also diseases of endocrine system and obesity.
For sick sugar diabetes of the 1st type the main treatment of a diabetes mellitus — an insulin injection, and the diet serves as essential addition of drug treatment while for patients with diabetes of the 2nd type – the food allowance based on a diet is the main method of treatment. As as a result of development of a diabetes mellitus the normal functioning of a pancreas leading to decrease in production of insulin by it which participates in digestion of sugar an organism is broken, the healthy nutrition and a diet are of great importance. The diet at a diabetes mellitus is used for normalization of carbohydrate metabolism and for the prevention of disturbance of a lipometabolism.
Food at a diabetes mellitus
- frequent and regular meals (4-5 times a day, approximately at the same time are desirable), the use of carbohydrates on meals is desirable to distribute evenly;
- the eaten food has to be rich macro - and microelements (zinc, calcium, phosphorus, potassium), and also vitamins (vitamins of groups B, A, P, ascorbic acid, Retinolum, riboflabin, thiamin);
- food has to be various;
- sugar should be replaced with sorbite, xylitol, fructose, aspartame or saccharin which can be added to the cooked food and drinks;
- it is possible to use up to 1,5 liters of liquid a day;
- it is necessary to give preference to the hardly acquired carbohydrates (vegetables, fruit, bread from coarse flour), to the products containing cellulose (crude vegetables, haricot, peas, oats) and to limit the use in food of the products rich with cholesterol — egg yolks, a liver, kidneys;
- it is necessary to keep to a diet strictly not to provoke development or an exacerbation of a disease.
The diet at a diabetes mellitus does not forbid, and in certain cases recommends to use the following products in a diet:
- black or special diabetic bread (200-300 gr. in day);
- vegetable soups, Russian cabbage soup, okroshkas, beetroot soups;
- it is possible to use the soups cooked on a beef-infusion broth 2 times a week;
- low-fat meat (beef, veal, rabbit), bird (turkey, chicken), fish (pike perch, cod, pike) (about 100-150 gr. in day) in the boiled, baked or jellied look;
- grain dishes are useful (buckwheat, oat, millet), and pasta, bean it is possible to use every other day;
- potatoes, carrots and beet — no more than 200 gr. in day;
- other vegetables — cabbage, including color, cucumbers, spinach, tomatoes, eggplants, and also greens, it is possible to use without restrictions;
- eggs no more than 2 pieces are possible a day;
- 200-300 gr. in day of apples, oranges, lemons, it is possible in the form of juice with pulp;
- fermented milk products (kefir, yogurt) – 1-2 glasses a day, and cheese, milk and sour cream — with the permission of the doctor;
- low-fat cottage cheese is recommended to be used daily on 150-200 gr. in day in any kind;
- from fats in day it is possible to use up to 40 g of unsalted creamy and vegetable oil.
From drinks it is authorized to drink black, green tea, rather weak coffee, juice, compotes from berries of acid grades with addition of xylitol or sorbite, dogrose broth, from mineral waters — narzan, Yessentuki.
It is important to the people having a diabetes mellitus to limit the use of the easily acquired carbohydrates. Treat such products — sugar, honey, jam, confectionery, candies, chocolate. The use of cakes, fancy bread, from fruit — bananas, raisin, grapes is strictly limited. Besides, it is worth minimizing the use of greasy food, first of all fat, vegetable and butter, fat meat, sausage, mayonnaise. Besides it is better to exclude fried, hot, spicy and smoked dishes, acute snack, salty and marinated vegetables, cream, alcohol from a diet. Table salt in days can use no more than 12 gr.
Diet No. 9
Nutritionists developed the special diet recommended as the main food at a diabetes mellitus. Feature of a diet No. 9 is that it can be adapted for individual tastes of the patient, adding or excepting some dishes at will. The diet at a diabetes mellitus creates conditions for normalization of carbohydrate metabolism, promotes preservation of efficiency of the patient, and is developed taking into account disease severity, associated diseases, weight, a metabolic cost. There is also a diet No. 9a which is used as a basis for drawing up a food allowance at an easy form of diabetes. And also at forms with the accompanying obesity of different degree at patients who do not receive insulin, and No. 9b, with the increased norm of consumption of protein, for patients with a severe form of diabetes who receive insulin treatment of a diabetes mellitus and have an additional exercise stress. The severe form often is complicated by diseases of a liver, gall bladder, pancreas.
The diet No. 9 includes approximately such diet: the first breakfast (before work, 7 o'clock in the morning): buckwheat cereal, meat paste, or low-fat cottage cheese; tea on xylitol, bread and butter.
The second breakfast (in a lunch break, 12 o'clock in the afternoon): cottage cheese, 1 glass of kefir.
Lunch (after work, 17 o'clock in the afternoon): soup vegetable, potatoes with boiled meat, one apple or orange. Or: the wiped Russian cabbage soup, meat boiled with stewed carrots, tea on xylitol.
Dinner (20 o'clock in the evening): boiled fish with cabbage, or potato zrazas, dogrose broth.
Before going to bed one glass of kefir or curdled milk.