Treatment and symptoms of diseases of a thyroid gland

General information

Where there is a thyroid gland at the person?

The thyroid gland (ShchZh, thyroid gland) consists of two parts (shares) covering a trachea and connected among themselves by a thin isthmus which is at the level of 2-go-3-go rings of a trachea under a throat. In the form the thyroid gland reminds a board or a butterfly, and the lower parts of her shares wide and short, and upper, on the contrary, narrow, high and a little dispersing. In certain cases (30-35%) its additional, so-called, "pyramidal" part is found. The arrangement of ShchZh does not depend on a sex that is where it is at men, in the same place it is also at women.

Фото, где находится щитовидная железа у женщин и мужчин

Photo where there is a thyroid gland at women and men

Size and weight of a thyroid gland individual. The average mass of a thyroid gland of the adult varies within 12-25 grams, and the size fluctuates around 2,5-4 cm (concerning length), 1,52 cm (concerning width), 1-1,5 cm (concerning thickness). The normal volume of ShchZh at men – to 25 ml, and at women to – 18 ml (the fluctuations in volume connected with a menstrual cycle are possible).

What the thyroid gland is responsible for?

According to medical Wikipedia the thyroid gland is one of the most significant closed glands characteristic of vertebral organisms (including the person) which function consists in storage of iodine and production of iodinated hormones (yodtironin) taking active part in adjustment of a set of exchange processes of the substances passing both in separate cells, and in an organism in general.

Hormones of a thyroid gland

The thyroid hormones produced by a thyroid gland are provided by thyroxine (T4, tetrayodtironin), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyrocalcitonin (calcitonin).

Synthesis of thyroxine and triiodothyronine is carried out in the tirotsita which are epithelial follicular cells (follicles) of ShchZh and is connected with iodine. These hormones control processes of normal maturing and growth of various bodies and fabrics (including TsNS), and also exchange processes of energy and substances. Also they strengthen proteinaceous synthesis and formation of erythrocytes, increase a gluconeogenesis (release of glucose from fats and proteins) and increase disintegration of fats. Concentration of sex hormones and, as a result, full-fledged sexual development depends on their level.

Release of peptide hormone of thyrocalcitonin happens thanks to C-cells (parafollicular cells) of a thyroid gland. This hormone takes the most active part in adjustment of cellular processes of an exchange of calcium and phosphorus thanks to which there is possible normal growth and further development of human ossa. At wear of bones or disturbances of bone integrity the calcitonin compensates their wear, by embedding in a bone tissue of calcium and phosphates, prevents formation of osteoclasts (factors of destruction of bones), stimulates reproduction and functional activity of osteoblasts, thereby leading to the fastest formation of a new bone tissue.

Functional activity of a thyroid gland

Today distinguish three main conditions of functional activity of ShchZh.

  • Euthyroidism – the condition of ShchZh which is characterized by full production and removal of thyroid hormones by which all functions of under control bodies and systems of a human body work in the normal mode and observed pathologies touch the thyroid gland.
  • Hypothyroidism – a condition of ShchZh at which the lack of its hormones causes the decrease in all or some metabolic processes in the bodies and systems of a human body depending on them proceeding with power insufficiency.
  • Hyperthyroidism – the condition of ShchZh determined by disturbance of work of body at which a superactivity of gland leads to a throw-in in a blood stream of excessive amount of hormones owing to what increase in exchange processes in the subordinated bodies and systems of a human body is observed.

Functional activity of a thyroid gland is regulated by thyritropic hormone (thyrotropin, TTG) which is produced by a front share of a hypophysis. Often indicators of production of this hormone indicate pathologies of a thyroid gland. For example, if the TTG level is increased, the reasons and external signs of misoperation of ShchZh, most likely, are connected with a hypothyroidism and vice versa the lowered TTG level, as a rule, indicates a hyperthyroidism. However, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism not the only diseases of a thyroid gland. The modern medicine also allocates autoimmune diseases of a thyroid gland, her craws and malignancies from which speech will go below.

Diseases of a thyroid gland, symptoms and manifestations

Negative manifestations and pathological symptoms of a thyroid gland are quite various and affect a set of bodies and systems of a human body from which the most significant, certainly, are the central nervous system and cardiovascular system.

As it was told earlier the majority of pathologies of a thyroid gland can be shared into three main groups conditionally:

  • ShchZh pathologies proceeding without deviations in its functional activity with characteristic structural morphological changes of the body (formation of nodes, a craw, a hyperplasia and so forth);
  • ShchZh pathologies which are followed by decrease in production of thyroid hormones and/or reduction of their plasma level (hypothyroidism);
  • ShchZh pathologies which are followed by increase of development or release of thyroid hormones (a hyperthyroidism or a thyrotoxicosis).

Development of all above-mentioned morbid conditions of a thyroid gland depends on a set of internal and external factors, their set, and also way of life, age and, somewhat, a sex of the patient.

Symptoms of diseases of a thyroid gland at men

Characteristic symptoms of diseases of a thyroid gland, except negative manifestations in the sexual sphere, do not depend on a sex. Depending on thyroid gland pathology, symptoms of this or that disease (hypofunction, hyperfunction, ShchZh inflammation and so forth) both at men, and at women are almost identical. Once you note that illness symptoms at men, actually and diseases, are noted much less often and according to the statistics only 1 man with a similar disease is the share of 10 women having thyroid gland pathologies.

Узлы щитовидной железы, фото

Thyroid nodules, photo

Specialists endocrinologists give several definitions to this fact among which overdue diagnosis of diseases because of the untimely address of men to the doctor as (37,2-37,5 body temperature, fatigue/excitability, heartbeat increase/delay, change of weight and so forth) it is easy to write off the main initial symptoms of problems at men for fatigue or an easy indisposition is on the first place. In such cases whether is at men of a problem with ShchZh only the doctor-endocrinologist whom the stronger sex, unfortunately, addresses in the last turn can establish. Owing to later diagnosing of pathologies of ShchZh at a man's half of the population, their therapy is complicated and takes more time, and in all the rest differs in nothing from the treatment appointed to women.

Symptoms of diseases of a thyroid gland at women

The main signs of problems and symptoms of diseases of a thyroid gland at women, treatment and prevention of these diseases correspond to that at men, except cases of the disturbances noted in the sexual sphere.

Увеличенная щитовидка, фото

The increased thyroid gland, a photo

Unlike male patients, symptoms of problems with a thyroid gland are diagnosed for women because of their more attentive relation to a condition of the health and appearance much earlier and often, including in a neck.

Depending on the happening disturbances in work of a thyroid gland women, can sometimes have absolutely opposite symptoms of an illness. For example, at increase in function of a thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) loss of weight, heartbeat increase, diarrhea, etc. is noted, and at its dysfunction (hypothyroidism) on the contrary – increase in weight, heartbeat delay, a lock and so forth. Also quite frequent inflammation and an enlargement of the thyroid gland at women, symptoms of a disease of nodes of this body and developing of a craw is observed.

Illness symptoms at women at similar pathologies often are followed by squeezing of a trachea, and then cough at a thyroid gland can be added to other negative displays of a disease, pain, the complicated breath, feeling of a lump in a throat. Thyroid gland signs at women at its increase can be noticed with the naked eye or to probe independently, and here what negative effects of an illness of a thyroid gland at women can arise otherwise only the qualified doctor-endocrinologist can predict.

Symptoms of diseases of a thyroid gland at children

Among other pathologies of a thyroid gland at the children who in essence are not differing from those at adults it is necessary to allocate the inborn hypothyroidism developing owing to various hereditary problems and negative factors in mother's womb from what it appears right after the birth of the child and can result in cretinism.

Are basic reasons of an inborn hypothyroidism:

  • hereditary factor (serious insufficiency of production of thyrotropin hypophysis of mother or low level of ShchZh hormones);
  • thyroid gland ectopia (the wrong arrangement and/or discrepancy of the ShchZh sizes which is followed by its dysfunction);
  • disturbance of forming of ShchZh in the embryonal period;
  • the local craw shown at mother during pregnancy;
  • hypoplasia (underdevelopment) or athyreosis (total absence) of ShchZh;
  • considerable lack of iodine and selenium, the thyroid hormones which are a basis of production.

It is almost impossible to find the first symptoms and external symptoms of an illness in children of infantile age and therefore for the warning of development of cretinism for the 4-7th days of life to all newborns hold testing for the purpose of determination of concentration of thyrotropin at them. The overestimated TTG level, together with additional researches (ultrasonography, a X-ray analysis and so forth) gives the grounds to assume insufficiency or total absence of production of thyroid hormones and is the indication to immediate carrying out preventive therapy by thyroxine drugs.

Кратинизм у детей, фото

Cretinism at children

If problems with a thyroid gland are diagnosed for children in the first days of their life (till 21 days), purpose of the adequate hormonal therapy which is carried out further throughout all life guarantees normal physical and intellectual development of the child. Otherwise effects of an illness lead to development of cretinism with irreversible changes of intellectual and physical character.

How the disease cretinism is shown and how serious can be changes physiologists and mentalities at the person having this pathology it is possible to judge by his external signs, and also other negative symptoms.

Characteristic symptomatology of cretinism:

  • serious lag in intellectual/physical development;
  • long not fusion of an infantile fontanel;
  • delay of skeletal growth, up to dwarfism forming;
  • delay of a prorezyvaniye and further change of teeth;
  • abdominal distention;
  • changes of front lines because of fabric puffiness (a wide and flat nose with the sinking-down back, a hypertelorism of eyes);
  • low hair line;
  • increase in the language which is often not located in a mouth;
  • jaundice;
  • disproportionality of a body;
  • small appetite;
  • thickening and coarsening of integuments;
  • frustration in the psychoemotional sphere;
  • lowered by the ABP;
  • intellectual disturbances, up to forming of an idiocy;
  • dryness and fragility of indumentum;
  • hypoactivity;
  • underdevelopment (rudimentarnost) of secondary sexual characteristic signs;
  • the myxedematous edemas which are shown at myxedematous cretinism.

Now we will consider the negative signs and displays of the main pathologies of a thyroid gland characteristic of any gender and age, and also their reason at women, men and children in more detail.

Hypothyroidism symptoms

The failure in work of ShchZh which is followed by disturbance of its hormones towards decrease in their development (a lack of thyroxine and triiodothyronine) leads to delay of the exchange processes happening in a human body. The lowered function of gland is characterized by reduction of formation of heat and energy. Problems at disturbance of work of a thyroid gland and a lack of its hormones often have not an effect a long time as symptoms of disturbance of its functions develop rather slowly, can be not specific and proceed is reserved masking under a number of other diseases. This circumstance often leads to wrong diagnosing and, as a result, to the wrong treatment.

In the clinical relation the hypothyroidism is divided on primary (shown at damages of a thyroid gland), secondary (arising at damages of a hypophysis) and tertiary (connected with problems in a hypothalamus — hypothalamic).

Thyroidites in a late stage when after an inflammation of gland there is its sklerozirovaniye become the reasons of primary hypothyroidism most often, yododefitsit (usually observable in endemic areas) and states after radiation therapy or surgical removal of gland (tumors, craws).

The hypothyroidism can provoke anemia and secondary immunodeficience.

From cardiovascular system delay of heartbeat with decrease in pulse is noted (lower than 55), able to be followed by blackout and even a loss of consciousness (usually at a sharp rising). At the beginning of a hypothyroidism the paradoxical symptomatology which is characterized by sympathoadrenal crisis (pristupoobrazny increase of heartbeat) can be observed. In a final stage of a hypothyroidism the myocardial dystrophy and heart failure often develops.

Integuments become pale, dry and cold to the touch. The person is pursued by constant feeling of freezing. Nail plates and hair grow dull and become fragile. Eyebrow shedding in outside area is typical, the alopecia (baldness) is possible.

In hypodermic cellulose of extremities and persons appear hypostases dense to the touch and badly cleaning up diuretics. Puffiness also concerns phonatory bands, doing the patient's voice low and deaf. The myxedematous edema extending to nasal mucous can be observed, complicating breath by a nose and a middle ear, reducing hearing.

The system of digestion answers with appetite disturbance, locks and problems with assimilation of food. At patients decrease in a producing intestinal enzymes and a gastric juice can be noted. Because of disturbances of motility from zhelchevyvodyashchy ways yellowness of eyeglobes and integuments is possible. Increase in a liver and display of gastritis is often observed.

Despite a hyporexia, the mass of the patient increases, but does not cause serious forms of obesity. Considerably weakness of muscles increases. Decrease in working capacity, apathy, drowsiness and fast fatigue is noted.

Morbidity of muscles can be followed by the paresthesias and polineyropatiya of extremities complicating a physical activity of the patient.

Decline in the emotional sphere, loss of interest and inquisitiveness is observed. To the patient becomes indifferent what events take place around, everything of what he thinks, is brought together to thought of need of rest. Depressions are frequent. In hard cases the thinking and memory suffers, ability to creative activity and training significantly decreases. Daily activity becomes "mechanistic" with satisfactory performance only of the operations fulfilled for years. At the started state with an essential gormonodefitsit the total muscular weakness influencing even performance of simple actions and interfering the patient is possible to service itself.

At patients of both sexes decrease in sexual desire is noted. At women reproductive functions (disturbance of a cycle, infertility) suffer.

At babies the inborn hypothyroidism can become the cretinism reason. At children of more mature age decrease in physical/intellectual activity and delay of growth is observed, up to development of moronity, a deficiency of intellect or an oligophrenia.

Sharp reduction of level of thyroid hormones can cause a myxedematous coma. This complication is characteristic of the elderly women suffering from a hypothyroidism throughout a long time. Such state is followed by strengthening of all negative symptoms of a hypothyroidism, with the subsequent loss of consciousness, possible respiratory or heart failure and risk of a lethal outcome. Any acute pathology, a long immobilization, overcooling can become the reason of a coma.

Hyperthyroidism symptoms

The increased function of a thyroid gland (when hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine are raised) causes in a human body a hyperactivity of all subordinates to gland of bodies and systems. The main exchange processes accelerate that leads to excitement cardiovascular, vegetative and central nervous systems, and also negatively affects the psychoemotional sphere of human life. The expressed ShchZh hyperactive function is defined as a thyrotoxicosis (hormonal poisoning of an organism). Not pronounced symptomatology of a hyperthyroidism, in particular at advanced age, it is easy to confuse with displays of chronic diseases or with age changes. For example, inflow, feeling of heat, a hyperhidrosis and so forth, women can take for manifestations of the coming menopause.

Первые симптомы гипертиреоза

First symptoms of a hyperthyroidism

Thyroidites of autoimmune or virus genesis, craws (Plummer, Greyvs, Bazedov's syndromes an illness), tumoral educations (cancer), the teratomas of ovaries (making thyroid hormones), the pituitary tumors (which are shown development of a large amount of thyritropic hormone, for example Truellya-Zhyune's syndrome) can become the reason of a hyperthyroidism. Also seldom the hyperthyroidism against use of arhythmic drugs (Amiodaronum) can be noted.

From cardiovascular system the first symptoms of a disease of a thyroid gland at its hyperfunction are characterized by acceleration of heartbeat (more than 90) which can be noted both at nervous excitement, and in absolute rest (including night episodes). In addition to the increased heartbeat cardiac pains and disturbances of a heart rhythm (the ekstrasistoliya which is followed by loss of reductions, the ciliary arrhythmia proceeding with discontinuous pulse and fear of death) can be observed.

Integuments of the patient become wet and warm to the touch.

The first signs of disturbance of a muscle work are shown by the small trembling of fingers of hands noted at strong nervousness. In the subsequent the symptomatology turns into trembling of hands which can arise even at rest. In hard cases the wide tremor in the relation, both hands, and the head, similar to parkinsonism symptoms is possible. Whether the head in this case can hurt, depends on specific features of an organism. As a rule, the head of the patient hurts as hurts at the increased temperature.

Increase in energy balance is followed by temperature increase and feeling of heat. At first at the patient the intolerance hot (wadded, woolen) blankets and rooms is observed. Further plentiful sweating even is noted at the minimum exercise stresses and at the room temperature. The feeling of heat can be supplemented with face reddening, and also feeling of asthma.

I pass increase of appetite against diarrhea it is connected with acceleration of assimilation and removal of the main nutrients. Per day five-six desires to defecation can be noted, pain in a stomach is at the same time possible. On ultrasonography at patients with a hyperthyroidism increase in a liver is observed. Whether the question can hurt at the same time the liver remains open, but completely it is impossible to exclude such opportunity.

Weight reduction can be rather sharp, and on the one hand is provoked by fast evacuation from intestines of the eaten food, and with another the forced disintegration of the saved-up fats, and sometimes and proteins. At the expressed hyperthyroidism in addition to loss of a fatty layer there is a decrease in muscle bulk. Such exhaustion of an organism gradually leads to a breakdown and development of the expressed weakness.

At moderately expressed hyperthyroidism sexual function can remain at the former level, and a libido with both floors even to raise. At men increase in mammary glands and development of erectile dysfunction is possible. At women frustration of a menstrual cycle and increase of probability of not incubation of the existing pregnancy can be observed.

The nervous system gives in to rather notable excitement. At the beginning of a disease this circumstance can become the reason of increase in working capacity and speed of reactions, however it is followed by unhealthy irritability, and also speech and motive disinhibition. With development of a disease character of the patient is considerably corrupted. There is an emotional lability (sharp and frequent differences of mood), intolerance and irritation in any insignificant occasion. There is a feeling of uneasiness and fear. Emergence of persuasive states is possible.

In certain cases hormonal emission gets a form of crisis, the so-called thyroid storm which is followed: nausea/vomiting, heartbeat increase, temperature increase, diarrhea, feeling of uneasiness and fear, muscular weakness and it is possible even a coma.

Craw of a thyroid gland, symptoms

Many cases of the above described diseases are followed by the increased thyroid gland, that is the patient has a craw of a thyroid gland. What is it what signs of increase as hurts and as the increased gland looks as to probe it whether there can be cough and asthma and other negative symptomatology, we will sort below.

In the countries of the former Soviet Union, on that as the craw of ShchZh looks it is accepted to divide it on: nodal (emergence of nodes in iron), diffusion (evenly increased gland) and diffusion and nodal (mixed).

Увеличение щитовидной железы, фото

Enlargement of the thyroid gland on a photo

At various pathologies the mechanism of an enlargement of the thyroid gland, symptoms and treatment differ. The thyroid gland hypertrophy developing owing to iodic insufficiency, or the increased need of an organism for the emitted ShchZh hormones (for example, during pregnancy) can become an origin of a craw. In certain cases symptoms of increase in a thyroid gland are noted at its hyperfunction, with forming, a so-called, diffusion toxic craw. Also the craw can accompany development of an inflammation of this body or forming of his tumor.

The enlargement of the thyroid gland at children's age occurs for the same reasons, as at adults, but demands more attentive relation and immediate treatment. As it was already told above, the increased thyroid gland at children can signal about insufficiency of production of thyroid hormones that it is fraught with delay of growth and intellectual lag. In this regard the parents who noticed any increase at the child of the ShchZh sizes are obliged to address immediately the pediatrician and to pass consultation at the doctor-endocrinologist.

The modern medicine uses several classifications of this pathology and in one of them (according to A.V. Nikolaev) five extents of increase in a thyroid gland are allocated:

  • The 1st degree – is observed increase in isthmus ShchZh which is swept accurately up when swallowing and gives in to a palpation;
  • The 2nd degree – is noted increase as isthmus, and add ShchZh which clearly are noticeable when swallowing and are clearly probed;
  • The 3rd degree – sick ShchZh completely fills front cervical area, smoothes outlines of a neck and is visible at visual survey (a "thick" neck);
  • The 4th degree – is significantly increased a thyroid gland, symptoms from a neck are shown by significant change of its form, the craw clearly is visible at visual inspection;
  • The 5th degree – the characteristic huge craw spoiling a neck and squeezing its bodies and vessels; when squeezing a trachea and throat the patient has a cough, to it becomes to pant, up to asthma at a thyroid gland; when tightening a gullet the difficulty of swallowing, in the beginning concerning firm food, and in the subsequent and liquids is noted; when jamming vessels the sonitus, dizziness, disorders of dream/memory and even a loss of consciousness is possible; with a pressure upon nervous trunks the chronic pain syndrome develops.

Other used classification of craws (on WHO) simplified, is specially created for simplification of comparative analysis of epidemiological researches, consists of only three degrees and notes what symptoms of a disease of a thyroid gland and symptoms of an euthyroidism (increase in ShchZh without changes in the level of its hormones) or thyroid gland pathologies (a hypothyroidism or a hyperthyroidism) are observed at the moment:

  • 0th degree – increase in ShchZh (forming of a craw) is not noted;
  • The 1st degree – development of a craw is not found visually, but gives in to a palpation, at the same time the probed shares of ShchZh exceed the size of an extreme phalanx of a thumb on the patient's hand;
  • The 2nd degree – the created craw clearly is probed and is visible visually.

Symptoms of various craws

Except observed increase in the ShchZh for some craws the eye negative symptomatology arising because of the autoimmune inflammation occurring in cellulose behind an eyeglobe is characteristic. Eye symptoms develop owing to a related antigenic structure of this fabric and a thyroid gland. The most typical symptom the exophthalmos (a vypuchivaniye of eyes), and in especially hard cases even their ectropion is considered. The first symptoms of a disease of a thyroid gland at its increase can not be followed by similar manifestations. Their development is most often noted at later stages of forming of a craw.

The most characteristic eye symptoms:

  • dacryagogue, puffiness a century, feeling of sand and/or a raspiraniye in eyes;
  • Kokher's symptom (delay of the movement of an upper eyelid in case of a look down);
  • symptom Gref (emergence of a white strip between an iris and an upper eyelid at a look up);
  • Geoffroi's symptom (wrinkling of a forehead when raising eyes up);
  • Möbius's symptom (impossibility to concentrate a look on close located subject);
  • symptom of Shtelvaga (rare blinking);
  • Rozenbakh's symptom (a superficial shiver closed a century).

In the table the most common symptoms of various craws, and also diagnostic parameters of their identification are included below.

Bazedova illness (toxic diffusion craw, Greyvs's illness) Nontoxic diffusion craw (euthyroid) Toxic nodal craw (Plummer's craw) Hashimoto's thyroiditis (Hashimoto's craw)
Hormonal activity quickly forming expressed thyrotoxicosis without disturbances
  • weak hyperthyroidism in the compensated phase;
  • thyrotoxicosis in a decompensation phase
slight or average thyrotoxicosis, it is long developing and replaced a hypothyroidism
Eye symptoms bilateral or unilateral exophthalmos and other eye symptoms does not cause an ophthalmopathy no decrease in visual sharpness, dacryagogue, front sights before eyes
As gland is palpated probed) ShchZh on all sites of identical density and elasticity ShchZh of a homogeneous consistence is also evenly increased, in degree from 0 to 5
  • cervical lymph nodes are not increased;
  • in ShchZh development of single or multiple nodes is observed;
  • nodes are painless;
  • are displaced when swallowing
  • in a phase of a thyrotoxicosis diffusion increase in ShchZh is observed;
  • at an iron palpation unevenly condensed;
  • slow growth of a craw is noted, up to the big sizes;
  • only one share of gland can be surprised
Stsintigrafiya (radio isotope scanning) the increased uniform accumulation in isotope ShchZh the ochagovost and accumulation is not observed the "hot" node catching isotope is found
  • in the period of a hyperthyroidism uniform accumulation of isotope is noted;
  • during the hypothyroid period there is its decrease
Laboratory diagnosis
  • The t3, T4 are increased;
  • TTG is lowered;
  • at a subclinical thyrotoxicosis of T3 and T4 it is normal;
  • TTG is lowered;
  • at an antibody thyrotoxicosis to TTG-receptors are raised
level of hormones is normal
  • the T3 level is increased stronger, than the T4 level;
  • Thyrotropinum is normal or is lowered;
  • at a hyperthyroidism;
  • antibodies to TTG-receptors are raised;
  • serumal thyreoglobulin is increased
  • at a thyrotoxicosis;
  • The t3 and T4 are normal;
  • TTG is lowered;
  • antibodies to TTG-receptors are raised;
  • at a hypothyroidism of T3 and T4 are reduced;
  • TTG is raised

Tumors of a thyroid gland

Malignant new growths of a thyroid gland arise owing to abnormal growth of cells in gland. On the general background of development of all tumors in the person the cancer of a thyroid gland is considered rare. The forecast for patients with the similar diagnosis in most cases positive as this form of cancer is, as a rule, diagnosed at early stages of development and well gives in to therapy. However, the cured cancer can recur, sometimes years later after carrying out treatment.

Types of cancer tumors of a thyroid gland:

  • metastatic cancer, sarcoma, epidermoid cancer, fibrosarcoma, lymphoma (1-2%);
  • anaplastic and undifferentiated cancer (3,5-4%);
  • medullary cancer (5-6%);
  • follicular cancer (14%);
  • papillary cancer (76%).

Thyroid gland cancer symptoms

The most widespread negative manifestations indicating possible development of cancer are:

  • the pain in the cervical area sometimes giving to the area of an ear;
  • consolidation under neck skin, especially fast-growing;
  • hoarseness of a voice;
  • the complicated breath;
  • swallowing disturbance;
  • the cough which is not connected with an infectious disease;
  • weakness, weight reduction, the increased perspiration, deterioration in appetite.

In case of identification any of the above-stated symptoms the patient needs urgently to address the oncologist and the endocrinologist as similar manifestations can indicate also other not tumoral diseases of a thyroid gland, and the only way of exact diagnosing of cancer is full medical examination. Early diagnosing of a cancer tumor and timely carrying out treatment in most cases leads to disposal of this illness.

Treatment of diseases of a thyroid gland

The disturbances of a hormonal background of a thyroid gland which are shown in the form of a hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, as a rule, give in to therapy by medicamentous himiopreparata. The appointed treatment at women practically does not differ from treatment at men, except for symptomatic therapy of the negative phenomena in the sexual sphere. Standard therapy of the changed hormonal background use of the drugs including ShchZh hormones (including drugs of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, their combination), and also the complex means containing inorganic iodine is considered (Thyreocombum, Tireotom, Yodtiroks and so forth).


Treatment of a hypothyroidism, because of untimely diagnosis because of the late address to the doctor of patients, in most cases begins already in a chronic phase of this disease using the drugs compensating for the deficiency of own hormones of a thyroid gland. Such replaceable hormonal therapy is, as a rule, carried out throughout all subsequent life of the patient.

The main lack of this method of treatment is development suppression by gland of endogenous thyroid hormones, finally leading the patient to a complete dependence from the used hormonal drugs. From the other negative moments of this therapy it is necessary to allocate forming of allergic reactions, in response to synthetic hormones, nervous breakdowns and disturbance of a heart rhythm.


Therapy of a hyperthyroidism begins at early stages of development of this pathology more often and directly depends on the reasons which provoked hyperfunction of a thyroid gland. The purpose of drug treatment is decrease in secretion and/or release of thyroid hormones for what to the patient tireostatik (thiouracil/Thiamazolum derivatives, diiodotyrosine) and/or the drugs interfering assimilation and cumulation of iodine are appointed. Such treatment, in particular at increase in ShchZh, recommend to carry out against change of a food allowance.

Своевременная диагностика гипертиреоза

Timely diagnosis of a hyperthyroidism

The diet at a craw and hyperfunction of ShchZh has to include enough proteins, vitamins, fats, minerals and carbohydrates, and limited number of the products which are excitingly influencing a nervous system of the person (chocolate, coffee, spices, tea, cocoa and so forth). Except tireostatik can sometimes include ß adrenoblockers in the scheme of treatment of a hyperthyroidism, interfering impact of thyroid hormones on a human body.

Negative effect of such therapy is the atrophy of thyroid tissue of the thyroid gland proceeding with essential decrease in functionality of gland and as a result leading to the same replaceable hormonal therapy. In addition, this treatment often is followed by quite heavy collateral manifestations: nausea/vomiting, disturbance of hepatic function, hemopoiesis suppression, allergic reactions and so forth.

Autoimmune pathologies

Treatment of autoimmune diseases of a thyroid gland, as a rule, medicamentous, has symptomatic character and is directed to oppression of inflammatory autoimmune process, elimination of separate negative manifestations (heartbeat, uneasiness, perspiration, block and so forth) and normalization of a hormonal background. Practice the surgical interventions which are also liquidating only external symptoms of an illness, but not its reason in some especially hard cases which are shown excessive growth of ShchZh.

Craw (increase) of a thyroid gland

One of methods of treatment of a craw is reception of a radioiodine which by means of a system blood-groove gets into a thyroid gland, collects in cells of a craw and leads to their destruction. When using this therapeutic method in most cases the absolute recovery of the patient does not come. After carrying out such treatment at the patient less expressed hyperthyroidism or the hypothyroidism (seldom) demanding continuous reception by the patient of hormonal drugs is most often observed.

More radical method of therapy of the increased ShchZh is a surgery on removal of its pathological part (resection) or all gland completely (thyroidectomy). Generally such operations are performed during the diagnosing of malignant new growths of a thyroid gland or growth of its fabric up to difficulty of breath and/or swallowing.

The negative moments of surgical interventions are: frequent postoperative development of the hypothyroidism leading the patient to lifelong reception of hormonal remedies; various postoperative complications (damage of epithelial bodies, voice nerves and so forth) giving about 10% of disability.

Proceeding from all aforesaid and taking the considerable risks connected with disturbances of a hormonal background in attention doctors recommend before treating a thyroid gland at women and men, to pass full medical examination of this body and its function and not to self-medicate. In time the diagnosed problems with a thyroid gland and adequately picked up therapy in many cases can prevent transition of an illness to a chronic stage and even completely to cure the patient.

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Education: Graduated from the Vinnytsia national medical university of N. I. Pirogov, pharmaceutical faculty, the higher pharmaceutical education – the specialty "Pharmacist".

Experience: Work in Koneks and Bios-Media pharmacy chains as "Druggist". Work as "Pharmacist" in Avicenna pharmacy chain of the city of Vinnytsia.