Leukocytic formula

The leukocytic formula represents a ratio of different leukocytes. It decides by coloring and calculation in a blood smear on use of a microscope.

Absence or existence of shift of a leukocytic formula which can happen as to the right or left side is important.

Shift of a formula demonstrates increase in peripheral blood of a share of unripe neutrophils, and also emergence of young myelocytes (metamyelocytes) to the left;

Shift of a formula speaks about reduction of a share of normal quantity of unripe neutrophils to the right, and also about increase in segmentoyaderdny neutrophils. This picture can be observed after hemotransfusion, during diseases of a liver and kidneys, megaloblastny anemia.

In clinical practice the leukocytic formula plays an important role as many changes in an organism lead to shift of a formula: percentage of one white blood cells increases due to reduction of others and vice versa. The leukocytic formula can reflect the course of a disease or pathological process, predict an outcome of the disease and emergence of complications. Data of a leukocytic formula compare with displays of an illness. The norm of this indicator differs depending on the constitution, a sex, age.

The main components of a leukocytic formula are neutrophils, eosinophils, basophiles, lymphocytes and monocytes.

Neutrophils possess disinsection and bactericidal functions. Depending on maturity degree neutrophils happen different types, each of which in this or that quantity contains in blood. Normal for the adult the general maintenance of all neutrophils in blood makes from 47 to 72%. At increase in a share of unripe neutrophils there is a deviation to the left. It can occur at sepsis, bleedings, intoxications, hemolitic crisis, tuberculosis, malignant tumors, a myocardial infarction, some infectious diseases, acute inflammatory processes. Fungal infections, radiation therapy, aplastic infections, bacterial and viral infections, infections which are caused by protozoa, postinfectious states lead to reduction of neutrophils.

Eosinophils possess phagocytal properties, that is they can absorb and destroy alien objects, however this function of eosinophils is connected generally with allergic processes. The normal maintenance of efozinofil in blood of the child makes up to 7%, the adult – to 5%. The eosinophilia, that is increase in maintenance of this type of cells is observed at collagenoses, infectious diseases, allergic states, after removal of antibiotics, at a helminthic invasion. The eosinopenia meets at an acute appendicitis, burns, injuries, sepsis, surgical interventions, some infectious diseases, in the first day after a heart attack.

The main objective of basophiles – participation in allergic and inflammatory processes. Their contents is normal should not make more than 1 percent. They increase at endocrine disturbances, allergic states, inflammatory processes in a liver, blood diseases, a lymphogranulomatosis, ulcer inflammation of intestines, chronic diseases of a gastrointestinal tract. Reduction of maintenance of basophiles in a leukocytic formula is observed at stressful conditions, an acute inflammation of lungs, long radiation therapy, hyperfunction of a thyroid gland, acute infections.

Lymphocytes take part in recognition of antigens therefore they are connected with immunity forming. The leukocytic formula of the adult of lymphocytes contains from 19 to 37%. The lymphocytosis, that is increase in level of lymphocytes, is observed during acute infectious diseases, periods, viral infections. The lymphopenia – increase in quantity of lymphocytes, meets at a lymphogranulomatosis, immune deficits, viral diseases, a renal failure, malignant new growths, reception of kortikoid, a circulatory unefficiency.

The main objective of monocytes consists from what organism of objects as the destroyed cells, bacteria which are dying off cells, an antigen-antibody complex at a distance, etc. reduction of monocytes (monocytopenia) is observed at a typhoid, heavy septic processes, treatment by glucocorticoids. Increase in a share of monocytes (monotsitovz) can meet at surgical interventions, collagenoses, some diseases of blood, infectious diseases, malignant new growths.

Section: L