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Leukocytes belong to white blood cells. They represent heterogeneous group, leukocytes differ from other cells in existence of a kernel and lack of coloring.
Studying of leukocytes, and also the processes connected with these blood cells actively was carried out at the end of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th century. The huge contribution to studying was made by scientists Ehrlich Swordsmen. The first of them worked on studying of various groups of leukocytes, the second – on the phagocytosis phenomenon. At the beginning of the last century they were together conferred the Nobel Prize.
The main function of leukocytes is protective. They are important in protection of organisms against internal and external factors, and also for implementation of pathological processes. The active movement is characteristic of all cells of this look, they are capable to get through walls of capillaries into fabrics where there is a phagocytosis — process of absorption of alien connections and substances. Cells which are occupied with phagocytosis are called phagocytes.
When alien substances in fabrics there is a large number, phagocytes strongly increase, absorbing them that leads to their destruction. Release of substances results that involves inflammatory reaction, hypostasis, reddening of a site of skin, fervescence. The pus formed as a result of an inflammation just is also such accumulation of dead leukocytes.
There are several kinds of leukocytes. They are classified by the carried-out functions, an origin and outward. For example, some leukocytes are only capable to take part in phagocytosis, and others – to develop antibodies. Traditionally these cells divide on granular and not granular. The first of them represent large kernels. They are also classified depending on ability to be painted. Agranulocytes contain not segmented kernel, monocytes and lymphocytes belong to them.
The leukocytic formula is a percentage ratio of different types of white blood cells.
Blood of the adult contains 1000 times less leukocytes in comparison with erythrocytes. Normal their quantity makes about 4 — 9×10 9/l. In the first days of life at newborn children increase of level of leukocytes several times then there is a gradual recession to norm is observed.
During the day, and also depending on a condition of an organism the level of leukocytes can fluctuate considerably. After meal, intellectual and exercise stresses, in the evening days the level of leukocytes can increase.
For definition of quantity of leukocytes use the general blood test. At the same time not only the quantity of these cells, but also structural structure is studied. Identifications of various groups of leukocytes it is necessary to establish the reason of the increased or lowered level of these cells. The percentage ratio is an important indicator at statement of the diagnosis in a gemotalogiya.
The leukocytosis arises in that case when marrow begins to develop too large number of leukocytes. In a case when the leukocytosis is pathology, most often in an organism aseptic or inflammatory infectious process takes place. At leukoses the leukocytosis is shown in especially severe form.
The leukopenia takes place when the organism is not able to develop enough leukocytes. Different infections, a stress, disturbances of work of marrow, a lymphogranulomatosis, a hypersplenism syndrome can be its reasons.