And whether you know...
The help at fever and an overheat at children
Fever is a reaction of a human body to pathogenic action of an infection, viruses and other factors. When at the person fever develops, process of thermal control is broken, and body temperature passes a mark of 37 °C. At high temperature microorganisms in an organism breed more slowly. And if temperature increases to 38ºС, then more intensive development of the interferon capable to deconstruct pathogenic viruses begins. Thus, fever is a peculiar defense reaction.
Fever at children
At children body temperature increases at various diseases. This symptom is one of the most important illnesses at a row. The matter is that fever is protective and adaptive reaction of an organism which is shown as response to action of various pathogenic irritants. In such situations in an organism there is a thermal control process reorganization. Fever allows to activate a host defense as at high temperature synthesis of interferon increases, antibody response is stimulated, lymphocytes are differentiated. At the increased temperature there is no proliferation of viruses and microorganisms.
It should be noted that fever and fervescence at an overheat are the two essentially different phenomena. The overheat of the child can occur when the ambient temperature where it is if the active muscle work, etc. is observed considerably increases. If the child overheated, at his organism nevertheless there is an installation of the center of thermal control on normalizing temperature. At the same time at fever the center of thermal control is ready for purposefully to reconstruct an organism on preservation of more high temperature. Therefore symptoms which are observed if there was an overheat at children can differ from displays of fever.
Fever develops at the child owing to the most different reasons. Most often temperature increases at development of infectious diseases, in particular at a SARS. Fever which has infectious genesis as it was already designated above, develops under the influence of bacteria, viruses, and also products of their disintegration. Fever which has noninfectious character can be shown as an effect of the most different reasons. It can have central (at hemorrhages, injuries, brain tumors), reflex (pain at an urolithiasis), psychogenic (display of mental disorders and an emotional pressure), resorptive (at development of a necrosis, at bruises, an aseptic inflammation); endocrine (at a hyperthyroidism) an origin. Besides, such reaction can be shown as response to receipt in an organism of medicamentous drugs.
Fever at children has a different current at the same level of a hyperthermia. If heat production corresponds to a thermolysis, then it is possible to say that fever at the child proceeds rather adequately, and he feels rather normally. If at the same time skin to the touch warm, wet and pink, then in this case is shown so-called pink fever. At the same time it is not necessary to accept means which have febrifugal influence. Such children's fever stops with the termination of the acute period of a basic disease.
If the increased heat production takes place, and at the same time the inadequate thermolysis owing to blood circulation disturbances is noted, then the forecast in this case is adverse. At such state pale skin, a strong fever, a Crocq's disease is noted, at the child feet and palms grow cold. White fever at children is so shown. In this case urgent treatment of children's fever by means of antipyretics, and also vasodilating and antihistaminic drugs is required.
Other types of fever
Separately the rheumatic fever which is a general disease at which heart is surprised is defined. Acute rheumatic fever affects children aged from 3 till 15 flyings.
Hemorrhagic fever is a viral disease at which toxicosis, fervescence, a hemorrhagic syndrome is shown. Infection with an illness comes during a sting of a tick, and also at contact of people with rodents and dirty objects. Symptoms of an illness is high temperature, weakness, dizziness, muscular pain, hypodermic and internal bleedings.
One more kind of hemorrhagic fever — mouse fever at which the renal syndrome is observed. It is a viral illness which can catch an air and dust way. The name appeared because initially products through which consumption the person catches are infected with allocations of rodents. In such state at the child body temperature rises to 40 C and above. Other symptoms of a disease is a fever, vomiting, nausea, migraine, odontorrhagias and a nose. Symptoms of an illness disappear in 4 days, but after that at the person the renal failure develops. It is the most terrible symptom as damage of kidneys can lead to a lethal outcome.
If fervescence at the patient is the only or main symptom, and at the same time it is impossible to define the diagnosis, it is about fever of not clear genesis. In such state at the patient temperature of 38 °C also is noted above, and fever is observed long — more than three weeks proceed, or body temperature periodically increases. In that case it is necessary to conduct additional researches and to define features of a condition of the person as fever of not clear genesis is the diagnosis of an exception.
The increased temperature often appears at the child as a vaccination effect. After introduction of a vaccine in an organism of the kid a certain quantity of antibodies is developed. And fever is a normal reaction of an organism to active work of immune system.
The medicamentous help at fever
As a rule, parents have a question whether there is a sense to force down the increased temperature at the child and in what cases it needs to be done. It is important to remember that the body temperature which does not exceed 38 °C at infectious diseases should not be forced down as in such state the child's organism copes with attack of viruses and microbes quicker. Reception of febrifugal drugs, according to recommendations of doctors, is necessary when temperature at the child overcomes a mark of 38,5 degrees. At such state too big load of bodies and systems of the person is already shown.
But regardless of what body temperature is observed at the child, febrifugal medicines should not be accepted by courses, several times a day, as it can complicate establishment of the diagnosis. Therefore, the dose of such drug needs to be accepted when temperature at the child rises to a critical mark again. At children nevertheless therapy of a basic disease which provoked temperature increase always has to be a basis of treatment of fever.
Choosing febrifugal drug which can be used for treatment of the child, it is necessary to consider surely, such means is how safe and also whether its use is convenient for small children.
And often used analgetics antipyretics are the most effective. However for children such drugs are not always safe. For example, there are researches which demonstrate that treatment by acetylsalicylic acid can cause Ray's syndrome. Also aspirin increases probability of manifestation of inflammations of a gastrointestinal tract, disturbance of coagulability of blood, and also makes negative impact on an organism of newborn children. Therefore aspirin is not recommended to apply la of treatment of children who were not 12 years old yet. Also side effects are observed when using for treatment of children of drugs Nimesulide (Nayz and Nimulid), analginum.
As a rule, at infectious diseases temperature at the child wakes up 3-4 times a day at the first two-three days of an illness. Further it is more rare. Duration of the general feverish period can sometimes proceed about a week if the child has flu, adenoviral, enteroviral fever.
If at the child symptoms of white fever are observed, it is necessary, without postponing, to call the ambulance. Except febrifugal drugs in that case the child should give the drugs having vasodilating influence. It is Nospanum, a papaverine, Droperidolum.
If at the child pink fever is observed, and at the same time body temperature does not exceed 39,0 degrees, then it is possible to force down her, without using medicines. It is necessary to provide to the child plentiful drink. It is important to maintain indoors air temperature no more than 20 degrees. The child needs to be dressed in easy and free clothes. Also bathtubs with water which temperature is two degrees lower, than the body temperature of the child are applied.
As physical methods of cooling wet rubdown is applied. The sick child it is necessary to open and rub off the water having room temperature. Also rubdown by vodka (40%spirt), vinegar solution practices (vinegar of 9% half gets divorced water). It is necessary to remember that it is impossible to wipe with vodka and vinegar area of the person, genitalias, nipples, and also those places where there are wounds, heat-spots. If on integuments of the child there are no wounds and an intertrigo, it is possible to make an acetic wrapping. In acetic solution the diaper is moistened and the body of the kid is wrapped in it. At the same time the neck of the child needs to be wrapped a dry diaper to prevent inhalation of evaporations of vinegar, and a genitalia and pacifier to cover with napkins. The wrapping repeats if necessary in half an hour.
For removal of temperature it is also possible to put cold where large vessels – in armpits, hollows under clavicles, in a groin are located, and also on a forehead and a nape. It can be a wet cold compress, a cold hot-water bottle. At the same time it is necessary to drink liquid of room temperature. However, applying everything the methods described above, it is necessary to watch to overcooling the child surely.
But it is necessary to consider that at a fever at the child the cold cannot be applied categorically. The sick child needs to be covered well, it is possible to put a hot hot-water bottle to feet, and the kid has to drink only the warmed-up liquid.
If body temperature at the child does not exceed 38 C, and at the same time he feels rather well, then it is worth being limited only to plentiful drink. It can be acid fruit drinks, compotes, warm water. It is desirable to limit physical activity. If by the evening temperature at the child sharply rises, it is reasonable to give it febrifugal medicines.
At a temperature it is not necessary to force the child is much. In its menu there have to be thin soups, low fat boiled meals. If the child fell asleep, he is not recommended to awake to give medicine. In a dream its organism most intensively struggles with an illness.
Overheat at the child
The strong overheat at the child can become the reason of development of a heatstroke at which fervescence is observed, sweating stops.
The first signs of a heatstroke is high excitability, vomiting, severe headaches. Further body temperature increases, skin turns pale, it becomes hotter also dry to the touch. The child can sometimes faint. At a heavy heatstroke body temperature can rise to 41-42 degrees.
Under direct sunshine the child can receive a heliosis which signs are nausea, slackness, breath increase, redness of the person. At such state body temperature also increases. Later the child can have hallucinations, nonsense, he can faint. If help is not given in time, there can be an apnoea and hearts.
Besides, the overheat at the child can occur also owing to action of other factors which break sweating. This long stay in the warm wet room, a dream in a bed which costs close near heat source, clothes not on a season, etc.
At an overheat first of all it is necessary to terminate heat on the child's organism, moving it to a shadow, or to more cool place. The injured child needs to be laid in horizontal position, to cover the head with the fabric moistened with cold water. Close clothes it is necessary to undo and undress the injured child to a belt.
If the consciousness of the child remains, and only initial symptoms of a heatstroke take place, it needs to give plentiful drink. Glyukozo-saline solution is for this purpose used. To prepare it, it is necessary to dissolve in one liter of water on a half of a teaspoon of soda and salt and two tablespoons of sugar.
To reduce the high temperature of a body which arose owing to an overheat it is necessary to rub off the child's skin cold water until body temperature does not decrease to 38,5 ºС.
It is important not to allow long action of heat on an organism of the kid. Therefore it is not recommended to walk with the child in heat peak, in the flying the kid needs to put on the Panamanian or a hat, the clothes have to be easy and natural. During a heat the child needs to give approximately twice more liquid, than in usual days.
Section: Other articles