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The lambliasis is infection of a human body with lyambliya. Every year a lambliasis about 200 million people in the world are ill.
It is shown by intestines dysfunction, can also pass as a parasitosis without symptoms. Lyambliya infect only the person. Process of infection passes through a mouth when the person eats products or drinks the water polluted by lyambliya. Also they can be brought in an oral cavity by dirty hands.
The infection develops in upper parts of a small bowel. Today it is scientifically proved that the lambliasis develops after swallowing several cysts. The cyst is a peculiar form of existence of a microbe, the capsule having a capsule appearance. At such capsule especially dense cover therefore she easily survives at different influences. So, cysts show acids, alkalis, active chlorine resistance. Only in the course of their boiling it is possible to neutralize completely.
Getting to a human body, they begin to breed very quickly, and over time the huge number of lyambliya collects inside. So, in a gut on 1 cm2 of a mucous membrane there can be about one million lyambliya and even more. At the same time with excrements the infected faces excrete one day before 18 billion cysts of lyambliya. The mobile form of lyambliya has four couples of flagellums, and also a prisasyvatelny disk which helps to be attached to a mucous membrane easily.
Lyambliya treat strict parasites, they do not eat the issued parts of food. They exist only in an upper part to a small bowel, on a cover mucosal surface. Lyambliya block functions of a mucous membrane of a small bowel owing to what digestion about walls is broken. Besides parasites negatively influence a physical activity of a gut. At a lambliasis of a bacterium and yeast cells can breed at fast speed. As a result functions of zhelchevyvodyashchy ways, and also work of a pancreas are significantly broken. All symptoms and displays of this illness generally arise because of bad process of absorption. It generally concerns carbohydrates and fats. Less actively enzymes work, B12 vitamin is badly absorbed, there are disturbances in the S-vitamin exchange. All manifestations demonstrate that lyambliya produce substances which negatively influence structure of microvillis in a small bowel.
Bile kills lyambliya therefore they do not live in zhelchevyvodyashchy ways. Respectively, they cannot provoke heavy disturbances of a liver, a holetsistokholangita, and also problem with a nervous system.
Rather often the lambliasis proceeds in parallel with other diseases. If lyambliya are present at an organism together with shigellas, then disorders of intestines can last more long time. Also in that case chronic dysentery can be shown.
In most cases the lambliasis has a latent current. If manifest forms of an illness are shown, then it is caused by massiveness of infection, various virulence of some strains of parasites, the broken immunity at the infested persons. So, the illness at HIV-positive people proceeds much heavier. Patients with immunodeficiencies often suffer from recurrence of a lambliasis, they can have an infection repeatedly. People who transferred a lambliasis can have not really intense immunity and not long.
In most cases the lambliasis passes without manifestation of certain clinical symptoms. If the illness is clinically expressed, then the acute and chronic form proceeds. Incubation interval duration — from one to three weeks. Lambliasis symptoms in an acute form are shown: the chair becomes liquid and watery, at the same time there are no impurity of blood and slime in it. The smell is unpleasant, and on a surface fat impurity appear. The patient complains of pain in epigastric area (that is under "spoon"). Intestines are inflated by too large amount of gases, the eructation gives a hydrogen sulfide smell. At the patient appetite considerably decreases, nausea, sometimes vomiting is shown, a little body temperature in certain cases can rise.
As a rule, the lambliasis in an acute stage takes place for five-seven days. Sometimes the illness drags on for several months, in development of a disease there are noticeable disturbances of food, weight is lost. In most cases all symptoms of a lambliasis pass in itself in 1-4 weeks. The lambliasis in some cases passes into a chronic illness, its recurrence is shown. From time to time the patient feels abdominal distention, in epigastric area there is pain, the chair can be liquid. In a chronic form the lambliasis at children at preschool age is in most cases shown. The illness does not give complications.
Diagnosis of a lambliasis
For statement of the diagnosis the lyambliya needs to find "lambliasis" in the form of vegetative forms or cysts. So, the diagnosis can be made after studying of clinical data, researches a calla, blood, duodenal contents. In the presence of suspicion on a lambliasis quite appropriate to use all diagnostic methods. If the acute form of an illness takes place, then parasites are allocated with a stake from the 5-7th day. Research a calla in the presence of chronic forms of a lambliasis it is necessary to move every week for 4-5 weeks, allocation of cysts happens periodically. To estimate a condition of zhelchevyvodyashchy system, a pancreas, liver, it is necessary to conduct research ultrasound of abdominal organs.
Today there is a number of methods which allow to find giardiac antigens in excrements of the infected patient. It is reaction of an indirect immunofluorescence, REMA.
Lambliasis at children
Get to a children's organism of a lyambliya similarly through a mouth. As a rule, parasites with water are told. In certain cases the lambliasis at children was registered at once after the birth. The lambliasis at children differently is shown. As a rule, the main symptoms of a lambliasis in this case are signs of a dispeptic syndrome: pain in a stomach or in the field of the right hypochondrium, nausea and vomiting, changes of a chair. In a duodenum and a small intestine the inflammation which consequence disturbances in the course of absorption of substances turn out to be develops. As a result of the patient the child loses weight, becomes pale, it shows strong fatigue. Rather often at the children sick with a lambliasis, allergic manifestations on skin can develop. It is the small tortoiseshell, Quincke's edemas, neurodermatitis. One more symptom characteristic to a children's lambliasis, is the persuasive movements (hyperkinesias). Such symptoms can be shown in the speeded-up blinking, twitching of face muscles, too strong grimacings. Generally at such symptoms inspection proves that the child has a lambliasis.
Treatment of a lambliasis
Now a lambliasis treat, dividing therapy into three stages.
First, the preparation including normalization of biliation is carried out. Medical actions are appointed, being guided by the revealed disturbances at ultrasonography and other inspections. Secondly, to be carried out actually treatment of a lambliasis. There are several widely applied methods. So, the specialist can recommend not only a traditional way of treatment of a lambliasis, but also homeopathic pharmacological and a method of phytotherapy. However the most important condition – at all not to apply medical measures without recommendation of the doctor. The applied means, including phytodrugs, can provoke emergence of side effects.
In the course of therapy also metronidazole, furasolidone are used. On the last researches and supervision, homeopathic methods yield positive result in 85-90% of cases. However for appointment it is necessary to address the homeopath surely. As photomeans garlic, pumpkin sunflower seeds crude, fig fruits, a gentian root, fennel (fennel), leaves of a peppermint and some other medicinal plants is used. It is important to consider that at treatment of a lambliasis it is necessary to eat fully, but at the same time to reduce the use of sweet. Glucose is suitable as additional power raw materials for these parasites.
Thirdly, in the course of treatment the rehabilitation period is important. At this stage it is important to correct a vitamin deficiency and an intestinal dysbiosis, using for this purpose biological products. Specialists gastroenterologists and infectiologists are engaged in treatment of a lambliasis.
Even in seven weeks after the termination of therapy palindromias can be shown. Therefore, it is important to visit periodically the specialist who will watch a condition of the patient.
Prevention of a lambliasis
All measures which are taken for prevention of hit in an organism of infections which are transmitted in the fecal and oral way approach. So, it is important to respect the sanitary and hygienic rules. It is not necessary to use not boiled water, it is important to wash all used fruit and vegetables. To watch children, and also not to allow dogs and cats to lick itself. In the course of bathing in a reservoir it is necessary not to allow water swallowing. It is important to explain it to children well. In the presence at the child of signs of a lambliasis, too long allergic disease or problems in functioning of a nervous system it is necessary to get immediately advice of the gastroenterologist or, in case of an illness of the child, the pediatrician.
Section: Infectious diseases