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The mastopathy is the illness of a mammary gland having high-quality character. Pathological growth of tissues of mammary gland is characteristic of a mastopathy of a breast. This disease for this time has the widest circulation among modern women: it is diagnosed for eight of ten women. The mastopathy of a breast develops owing to the hormonal failures happening in a female organism. Development of this illness affects overall health of the woman very negatively, besides its manifestation can become premises to a dangerous disease — a breast cancer.
The mastopathy of mammary glands is hyperplastic dishormonal process. It is a fibrous cystic disease at which there is a change of fabrics. At a mastopathy the wrong ratio of connecting and epithelial fabrics takes place.
Generally the mastopathy develops at women aged from 25 till 45 flyings, that is in the genital period. Seldom or never the mastopathy is diagnosed also for men.
Breast mastopathy reasons
The mastopathy especially often develops at women who did abortion in due time. In the course of artificial abortion there is very rough and sharp intervention in a condition of hormonal system of an organism of the woman which at this stage was already adjusted on pregnancy. In a mammary gland of the woman preparation for future breastfeeding happens practically in the first days of pregnancy. By then, as abortion will be made, in it there will be very serious changes. And the subsequent sharp change influences tissue of a mammary gland extremely harmfully.
One more factor directly influencing emergence at the woman of a mastopathy of a breast are gynecologic diseases. The matter is that mammary glands are included into uniform genital system of an organism, and at any disturbances in functioning of this system there is a notable blow in a mammary gland. Statistically, in 75 percent of cases at gynecologic diseases happen to development of inflammatory process of change also in a mammary gland. Even at a long absence of sex life at the woman the mastopathy which signs become clearly noticeable later sometimes begins to develop.
As it was already told above, the female mammary gland is the body dependent on hormonal balance in an organism. As a result of it, the phase of a monthly cycle influences a condition of fabric of gland. Ovaries develop two types of hormones which are responsible for regulation of a menstrual cycle: in the first half of a cycle production of estrogen is made, after an ovulation ovaries produce progesterone. Influence a condition of a mammary gland and hormones which develop a hypophysis, adrenal glands, a thyroid gland. Under the influence of hormones every month the mammary gland suffers certain changes: it becomes more rough before periods, and after its termination there is the return process. At disturbance of hormonal balance owing to certain negative influences channels, fibrous (connecting) and ferruterous tissue of a breast can expand patholologically.
Besides, too high production of hormone of prolactin which is responsible for production of milk in the course of breastfeeding, out of the period of incubation and feeding of the child can become the reason of the subsequent development of a mastopathy. Owing to too high secretion of prolactin mammary glands are constantly stimulated, and the mastopathy proceeds painfully.
Existence of anovulatory cycles, and also shortening of a lyuteinovy phase can provoke development of a mastopathy.
Sometimes the mastopathy is shown also against other diseases which do not have relations to genital system. First of all, it is illnesses of a liver, pancreatic and thyroid glands, adrenal glands. Therefore the reason of development of a mastopathy has a direct bearing on selection of the correct tactics of treatment of an illness.
Disorders of neurologic character become the reason of development of a mastopathy of a breast in the woman often also. Stresses, neurosises, a depression can become a peculiar starting factor for development of this illness. As a result the woman will get to a peculiar vicious circle: the mastopathy of mammary glands is shown as an effect of nervous breakdowns then the illness is already the reason of manifestation of a constant condition of a stress. For this reason often in the course of treatment of a mastopathy to the woman psychotherapy sessions are appointed.
In this case also the heredity factor therefore the woman has to know accurately about existence of both benign, and malignant diseases of mammary glands at close relatives is very important.
Danger is constituted in this case also by injuries of a mammary gland. Even the small injury can sometimes serve as the reason to start pathological process in a breast.
As the reason increasing risk of a disease of a breast mastopathy, specialists determine also lack of pregnancy or too late birth of the child, and also too short duration of feeding by a breast or its absence.
It is very often possible to say about an interconnection of some reasons that as a result forms the general adverse background.
Types of a mastopathy of a breast
Being guided by differences in changes which happen in a mammary gland, specialists define two different types of a mastopathy. The fibrous and cystous diffusion mastopathy is a state of which growth of connecting tissue of mammary gland is characteristic. In development of a diffusion mastopathy in a breast small small knots and tyazh are formed. Other kind of a mastopathy of a mammary gland — a fibrous and cystous nodal mastopathy. In this case in a breast there are big and dense nodes, and at palpation it is possible to find mobile consolidations without clear boundary.
Breast mastopathy symptoms
The mammary gland of the woman is characterized by the fact that options of norm of its structure happen various at different age of the woman, depending on a condition of her reproductive system, and also the period of a monthly cycle. For this reason at suspicion on development in the woman of a mastopathy, symptoms of an illness it is sometimes difficult for experienced doctors to define even in view of possible existence of both physiological, and pathological changes.
Symptoms of a mastopathy are initially shown at the woman by growth of connecting tissue of mammary gland owing to what there is an emergence of small small knots and tyazhy. In this case at the woman the diffusion mastopathy develops. This form of a disease is shown by mastalgiy, that is notable morbidity of a breast just before periods. When the periods begin, the stethalgia abates. Besides, as symptoms of a mastopathy of diffusion type the patient has consolidations in upper part of a mammary gland, similar to balls from time to time. Very often patients do not pay attention to symptoms which show a diffusion mastopathy, and do not hurry to see a doctor behind consultation. Ignoring similar signs many years, women arrive extremely imprudently, at initial stages this illness can be cured by conservative therapy.
Emergence in tissues of a mammary gland of consolidations which sizes vary is characteristic of the subsequent development of a disease and reach the walnut size. It is a nodal mastopathy. If this stage of an illness develops, symptoms of a mastopathy are characterized by more intensive pain. Periodically pain gives to the axillary area, to a shoulder. Sometimes pain arises even at the most insignificant contact to a breast.
If at the woman the nodal mastopathy progresses, symptoms of a disease is periodic allocation from a nipple of transparent or bloody liquid. Feeling a breast, it is possible to find granularity or existence of lobation in gland fabrics. Presence of lobation or granularity of fabrics is characteristic of this stage of a disease. At this stage of a disease all manifestations remain invariable and during periods. At a nodal mastopathy the woman has to ask for medical assistance immediately.
Thus, the main symptoms of a mastopathy are the following manifestations: pain and strong discomfort in a breast; existence of consolidations in tissues of a mammary gland which in the course of independent inspection can be defined as the dense sites having indistinct contours; increase in lymph nodes in armpits; nagrubany breasts, respectively, increase in its size; emergence of allocations of various character from nipples; existence of a node in a breast at a nodal mastopathy. All specified symptoms can be shown at a mastopathy of mammary glands in a different combination.
Diagnosis of a mastopathy of a breast
The specialist mammologist has to carry out diagnosis of a mastopathy, at establishment of such diagnosis it is necessary to exclude other diseases of a mammary gland. It is especially important not to pass symptoms of a breast cancer. If the diagnosis "mastopathy" is established, then for definition of the correct complex of treatment of a mastopathy it is necessary to concretize surely a form of an illness and to watch constantly what changes happen in a breast of the sick woman.
Initially diagnosis of a mastopathy of a breast assumes detailed poll of the patient about features of her life and case history. The doctor surely considers what diseases the patient what character of periods at it, how many childbirth and abortions was in her lives, degree of a genetic favor to a mastopathy, etc. had.
The doctor it is obligatory to get acquainted with the current complaints of the patient, performs inspection and manual inspection of a breast. In the course of survey the palpation of mammary glands of the patient and lymph nodes is without fail made that allows to find consolidations, nodes and to define their character.
It is possible to estimate the general condition of mammary glands also by means of mammography and ultrasonic researches. It is also important to possess information on the hormonal status of the woman.
Carrying out mammography allows to estimate a breast condition objectively. The pathological phenomena in mammary glands at such research decide on probability of 95-97%.
By means of ultrasonic research it is possible to obtain additional information on nature of diffusion changes and nodal educations at a breast mastopathy. Ultrasonography and mammography are methods which mutually supplement each other.
There are also other techniques of establishment of the diagnosis "a breast mastopathy" which apply less often (a termografiya, a computer tomography, a duktografiya). To exclude existence of a malignancy, the puncture biopsy and the subsequent cytologic and morphological research is carried out. The pathological phenomena can be estimated also by means of histologic research which is considered the most exact method of differential diagnosis.
Treatment of a mastopathy of a breast
After establishment of the diagnosis immediate treatment of a mastopathy is made. It is important that the patient was under supervision of the doctor for the purpose of control of development of the subsequent pathological process.
The choice of a method of therapy of a mastopathy is influenced by a number of factors: illness form, age of the patient, existence of other illnesses, etc.
Today for treatment of a mastopathy many various drugs are used. However first of all advise women in whom the fibrous and cystous mastopathy was found to change the principles of food. In this case it is important to refuse strong coffee and tea, not to smoke and not to take alcohol. Besides, advise the patient to pick up a suitable bra which well supports a breast, at the same time not peredavlivy it.
Treatment of a mastopathy assumes reception of vitamins, diuretic drugs, and also hormonal and anti-inflammatory drugs.
As vitamin therapy of the patient appoint reception of vitamins E, A, B1, B6. They need to be used throughout a long span. Besides, antioxidants, iodine drugs are shown to the woman with a fibrous mastopathy. Drugs with antiinflammatory and diuretic influence help to remove morbidity of a breast. Homeopathic medicines and phytotherapy can be also used in a complex of treatment of a fibrous and cystous mastopathy.
If the nodal form of a disease is diagnosed for the woman, then in this case the surgery is mainly appointed. Unambiguously surgical intervention is shown if it is about a fibroadenoma or a tsistadenopapilloma. Carrying out an operative measure for the purpose of extraction of a node for the subsequent exception of a breast cancer is also possible. Sometimes to women with a nodal mastopathy also conservative treatment is appointed, operation not always removes an etiology, and often formation of nodes in a breast happens repeatedly.
Women who were ill a fibrous mastopathy should not visit a sauna, the long time to be on the sun or to accept artificial suntan.
Prevention of a mastopathy of a breast
Fibrous mastopathy – a disease which is considered to be as a precancerous state. Therefore, prevention of a mastopathy at the same time will help to prevent an oncological disease of a mammary gland.
In this case it is important to consider that development of a mastopathy happens in an organism against a hormonal imbalance. Therefore it is important not to allow hormonal failures. The main measure of prevention of a mastopathy is maintaining a healthy lifestyle and everyday physical activity.
It is important to pay attention to a food allowance, having reduced the content of fats and at the same time having increased amount of the consumed cellulose. The woman should not exceed the normal level of caloric content of food, otherwise the exchange of estrogen can be broken. In a food allowance there have to be many products with the high content of vitamin C, vitamins of group B, calcium, magnesium. These microelements and vitamins are responsible for education in a prolactin organism. Besides, the woman should not abuse salt which stimulates a delay of liquid and, respectively, swelling of a breast.
It is impossible to allow presence at life of a chronic stress, correctly treating difficult situations.
Selection of a bra is important: it should not worsen the address of blood, at the same time well supporting a bust. Material of linen has to be natural that when wearing a bra the effect of a sauna was not created.
It is regularly important not to exchange to carry out independent inspection of a breast regarding existence of consolidations. It needs to be done monthly. As a prophylactic use also independent massage of a breast.
There are also other prophylactics of a disease which will be prompted directly by the specialist on reception in an individual order. Therefore, regular visit of the mammologist – one of the most important measures of prevention of a mastopathy.