The melanoma is an illness of pigment cells of skin (melanocytes) of malignant character. Can sometimes arise not in skin, and in mucous membranes. Unfortunately, the disease is rather widespread, and every year the number of the diagnosed cases increases.

For comparison it is enough to give the following numbers: at four of hundred men, and this illness is diagnosed for three of hundred women with malignancies. Several decades ago the melanoma belonged to age diseases, that is developed at persons age of 50 flyings. Today the illness became nearly the most frequent among other malignant diseases at young women aged from 25 till 35 flyings. Already now the illness came to the second place on dynamics of growth of mortality after lung cancer.

Theoretically treatment of a melanoma can take place to an absolute recovery and be quite successful. However such succession of events is possible only in case of early detection of a disease at the earliest stages and the correct therapy.

Actually that the gain of incidence had just the last decades there is nothing surprising. Assumes current trends in fashion that women have to have a sunbathed skin at all seasons of the year. As a result campaigns in a sunbed become a commonplace. And this hobby can be very dangerous. In risk group first of all there are people with the first and second type of skin, that is fair-haired, red, freckled.

Types of melanomas

МеланомаThere are several recognized classifications of a disease, the sign is the cornerstone of each of which. So, the most widespread divisions – on nature of course and by the form the struck fabrics. Let's consider both classifications.

In the first case, at division on nature of course, allocate 5 types. We will list them on decrease of frequency of diagnosing.

1. The superficial extending melanoma comes to light in seven of ten cases. Generally women at whom defeat extends horizontally are patients. The favorable forecast for treatment has this appearance.

2. The nodular melanoma can affect representatives of both floors equally. Unlike the previous look growth goes not horizontally, and to thickness of skin. This fact causes complexity of treatment and, respectively, leads to the adverse forecast in most cases. Unfortunately, nodular melanoma is the second for frequency and comes to light at each of 6-7 patients.

3. A hyponychial melanoma (also has the name an akralny lentiginozny melanoma). Despite the name, can appear and quickly extend not only under nail plates, but also on finger-tips further, on fingers to palms.

4. Malignant lentigo distribution between men and women approximately identical is diagnosed on different these from 5 to 10% of cases, and. Such form most often is found in elderly people. Pigment cells of open sites of skin, that is on lyceum, a neck, hands are subject to a disease.

5. The Amelanotichesky melanoma, proceeding from the name, has a little uncharacteristic emergence. On the damaged skin site at first there is a small pink speck to which most often do not pay attention owing to its similarity with banal sting. However gradually this small knot (papule) increases in sizes. This look meets rather seldom, in 7 cases from 100.

The second classification means the following types of melanomas depending on the struck fabrics: retinas of an eye, mucous, soft tissues. Classification quite clear and, for certain, does not demand additional explanations. Let's add only that on mucous the melanoma develops only in 1 case from 100, but at the same time practically all mucous are subject to damage, beginning from an oral cavity, finishing with generative organs and perianal area. Characteristic of defeat of soft tissues is total absence of a binding to age, that is among patients there can be both elderly people, and small children.

Melanoma symptoms

МеланомаA third of diseases arises not on "blank space", and on the basis of already existing (existing) pigmental education. The remained two thirds appear on a new site of skin (mucous). Independently to define the first symptoms of a melanoma, we recommend to you to use the rule ABTsD (it is possible to remember as the English ABCD). The rule received the name from the first letters of signs: AndAsymmetry, B – Chaotic outlines, C – color variations, D – diameter. So, we will walk on them one after another.

  • And – Asymmetry. Means that if we mentally divide appeared a new growth on two parts, then between them there will be no symmetry. It is connected with uneven growth of the struck area.
  • B – Chaotic outlines. It is extremely seldom possible to meet a melanoma of an accurate geometrical form therefore pay attention to how borders of the appeared spot look.
  • C – Color variations. The new growth corresponding to this illness does not happen monophonic. At it at least there are various shades, and even different colors.
  • Д – Diameter. If you found in yourself a new spot on skin, take a ruler and measure its diameter in the widest part. If he exceeded 6 mm, it is time to sound alarm.

The provided rule ABTsD is not all symptoms. Some patients at early stages can feel an itch on site of the appeared spot. In the absence of treatment at later stages the spot can cause painful feelings, bleed.

Further we will consider in more detail one more rule which helps to reveal the melanoma which is formed on site birthmarks.

Diagnosis of a melanoma – the FIGARO method

МеланомаSuch interesting name of a method also is an abbreviation which indicates the main changes happening to a birthmark.

It is known that the majority of birthmarks on a human body do not act from a skin surface. If the Form of a birthmark is convex, then it has to guard. Camber can sometimes be easily distinguishable, in other cases it is necessary to look sideways at this site of skin to notice vystupany birthmarks over skin.

One more bad sign – Change of size of a birthmark. If it begins to increase – it is worth paying attention of the specialist to it.

We already said that a distinctive feature of spots of a melanoma is their indistinct geometry. The same treats also birthmarks: if birthmark Borders not equal, it can be considered as one of symptoms of a disease of melanocytes.

The following three signs – Asymmetry, the Size and Colouring, we noted too, describing melanoma symptoms. As a rule, during a disease the form of a spot turns out asymmetrical that it is easy to define, having visually divided it into two parts. As for the size then the big size of a birthmark in comparison with usual for the person means. And the last that needs to be remembered about the FIGARO method, is that at a spot melanoma practically never have uniform coloring.

Of course, the FIGARO method cannot be considered completely professional, it allows you to notice dangerous changes on skin in time. After that it is necessary to pass dermatoskopichesky inspection at which the specialist will be able to determine character of a birthmark by the special device.

In addition to it histologic research in the course of which the birthmark is excised together with part of the skin surrounding it can be also conducted. Both the birthmark, and fabric environments, then separately are exposed to the microscopic analysis.

The reasons of a melanoma and factors promoting its development

Though researches of this disease of pigment cells are conducted continuously, scientists cannot still establish the unambiguous reasons of a melanoma. Therefore at the description of a disease are, as a rule, limited to transfer of those factors which can promote its development.

First of all, there is a group of people which is initially more predisposed to problems with an integument. These are red-haired, fair-haired men and women with light and/or freckled skin.

It is proved that the overdose of ultraviolet radiation promotes a course of a disease. Therefore too frequent campaigns in a sunbed where this light spectrum is used, can be dangerous to your health. The melanoma can develop on site sunblisters, and it can occur after years from the moment of its emergence.

Scientists also add heredity and age to the mentioned factors. To be fair It should be noted that though the risk of a disease increases when crossing an age threshold in 50 years and/or in the presence of an illness at relatives, nevertheless you should not consider them as determinal factors. Many examples of defeat of melanocytes and at young age, and at persons whose relatives never similar faced anything are known.

Prevention of a melanoma

МеланомаOne of the main rules on which prevention of a melanoma is based is regular survey of skin for the purpose of early detection of its uncharacteristic changes. Having used the specified ABTsD methods (the name ABSD sometimes meets) and FIGARO, you will be able independently to find the first symptoms of a melanoma then at once it is necessary to see a doctor.

Besides, it is necessary to minimize influence of factors which can promote problems with skin. If you by all means want to visit a sunbed, then it is worth doing it not often, and stay time under lamps needs to be maintained strictly.

If it is about solar bathtubs which all of us so love then there are several simple rules which both adults, and children have to observe.

First, it is necessary to choose correctly time for suntan: the best sun till 11 in the morning and after 4th in the evening.

Secondly, protect skin special creams. It should not be neglected even if you did not manage to get out to tropical countries, and you remained at the dacha in our latitudes. Please note that after drawing cream can work no more than 2 hours. After this time procedure of drawing should be repeated.

Going to sunbathe, do not use cosmetics. It changes heat exchange of skin with air therefore it is possible to receive ozheg.

And, of course, you should not fall asleep under the open sun. Ozheg in this case it is almost inevitable. Let's note also that some antibiotics can strengthen a skin susceptibility to ultraviolet rays. If you take a therapy course, take an interest at the attending physician or the druggist about properties of antibiotics which you accept.

Complications of a melanoma

Though the melanoma is a defeat of pigment cells, it can pass also to other fabrics or even bodies. Such process is called innidiation.

Complications of a melanoma are shown gradually. At first it extends in the hematogenous way on a human body. Via veins the struck cells can get anywhere, beginning from a brain, finishing with a liver or even bones. Lymphatic system can appear one more way of distribution. In this case under threat lymph nodes get.

Surprisingly, but, despite these complications of a melanoma of which, in general, much know attempts to conduct treatment of a melanoma independently still pretty often meet. We strongly recommend you not to cut off a convex birthmark independently, not to tie up it a thread and not to resort to other folk remedies until you consult with the doctor. Only the specialist after the corresponding researches can define nature of education.

Treatment of a melanoma

All methods of disposal of an illness, in general, are connected with impact on education. Most often resort to a surgery during which the melanoma is removed. Excision is made with a site of not injured skin in a radius of 1-1.5 centimeters, hypodermics, that is a muscle and a hypodermic fatty tissue are also taken. Alternative treatment of a melanoma are a therapy (beam or immune) or destruction (laser or krio).

The modern medicine proved that it can successfully struggle with such disease as a melanoma. The main thing – to ask in time for the help the doctor.

Section: Dermatology (Skin diseases)