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Menopausal syndrome (menopause)
September 23, 2012
The menopausal syndrome (climax, menopause) is the period of physiological changes in the woman's life which lead to gradual fading of genital function. Similar reorganization in an organism happens as a result of hormonal changes. As a rule, the menopause at the woman originates after forty-year age and proceeds for about ten years.
Signs of a menopausal syndrome
The main sign of manifestation of a climax is the gradual termination of periods. Besides, manifestation of the whole complex of various disorders of both endocrine, and vegetovascular character is characteristic of a menopause. Women in the period of a menopause often suffer from sudden "inflow" which are accompanied by feeling of a heat, inflow of blood to the person. Besides, at this time the woman notes manifestation of strong perspiration, irritability, tearfulness, at it arterial pressure can go down and increase considerably, dryness of mucous membranes and skin is periodically shown, sleeplessness disturbs. In some cases at a menopause sudden mental and nervous breakdowns, and also developing of dysfunctional uterine bleedings are possible.
However the listed above symptoms of a menopause are shown not at all women at climacteric age. At part of women the period of such reorganization of an organism of pathological manifestations does not provoke. However still the part of women notes the pathological current of a climax leading to manifestations of a menopausal syndrome. According to medical statistics, the menopausal syndrome develops at 26 – 48% of patients. Sometimes disturbances of functioning of different systems of an organism at development of this syndrome are so serious that the woman cannot fully work, and her quality of life considerably goes down.
Reasons of a menopausal syndrome
The period when the organism of the woman enters a phase of withering of functions of reproductive system, many women take rather hard. Serious changes are capable to affect practically all female organism. Work of immune system gives a certain failure that, in turn, leads to increase in number of infectious and autoimmune illnesses. Process of aging of a female organism also becomes more active at this time. However the most striking changes happen to a reproductive system of the woman at this time. During a menopause in the woman's ovaries follicles do not develop any more, ova do not ripen, there is no ovulation.
In the period of a climax in a female organism the content of estrogen considerably decreases, and at the same time production of gonadotropic hormones increases. In view of too low contents in an estrogen organism the woman can have frustration in different bodies. So at a menopausal syndrome disturbances of urogenital, vegeto-neurotic character are possible. The risk of development of osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, changes of skin, ischemia of vessels, psychological disturbances increases.
Features of menopausal frustration
Menopaualny frustration according to extent of manifestation of a menopausal syndrome are shown as early temporary, srednevremenny and late temporary manifestations.
As early temporary manifestations there is a number of vasculomotor symptoms (a headache, inflow, oznoba, jumps of arterial pressure, periodic heartbeat). Also so-called psychoemotional signs (feeling of concern, weakness, a gallop of mood, irritability, sleeplessness) are allocated. The woman can even sometimes fall into a depression, note lowering of a libido. All these signs are characteristic of the premenopauza period, they can arise also in the first years of a postmenopause.
Speaking about srednevremenny manifestations of a climax, doctors note some separate groups of symptoms. As urogenital symptoms the woman notes dryness of a vagina that leads to morbidity of the sexual intercourses, also she is disturbed by an itch and burning in the field of generative organs, the urination becomes frequent, sometimes the woman suffers also from an urine incontience. Gradually the quantity of wrinkles on skin increases, nails can intensively break and drop out hair. Such manifestations arise at the woman approximately in 3-5 flyings after the first manifestations of a menopause. If the woman practices any methods of treatment of such symptoms, they do not bring the expected effect.
Late temporary manifestations of frustration of the menopausal period are, first of all, the disturbances of a metabolism conducting to atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, a number of cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease. Such serious illnesses develop in 5-10 after there come the first manifestations of a climax.
Symptoms of a menopausal syndrome
Both development of a menopausal syndrome, and weight of manifestations at a climax depends on several factors. These are hormonal disturbances, the general state of health of the woman by the beginning of a climax, genetic predisposition, environment.
If at the woman the climax proceeds patholologically, then approximately in 80% of cases vegeto-vascular symptoms take place. In this case it should be noted so-called "inflow": in such state at the woman capillaries on face skin, the heads, breasts sharply extend, body temperature increases a little. In such state strong flow of heat is felt, skin reddens, strong heartbeat and sweating is observed. Similar attacks can proceed about five minutes. At different women the different frequency of "inflow" is noted: in days can come from one to twenty such attacks. It happens to a thicket at night, negatively influencing the woman's dream in a climacteric. In especially hard cases inflow of a menopause are followed by a depression, phobias, severe dizziness.
At part of the woman the described menopause symptoms are also followed by irritability, feeling of alarm, tearfulness, other psychoemotional symptoms.
The pathological current of a climacteric can be also shown by sexual and urogenital frustration. One more alarming symptom – development of osteoporosis at which the risk of changes considerably increases.
The heavy menopausal syndrome at a climax sometimes provokes manifestation at the woman of sympathoadrenal crises. At such attack the patient is disturbed by a sharp headache, jumps of arterial pressure, a delay of department of urine which the polyuria follows. At a heavy current of a climax symptoms of a menopause can be shown by also regular developing of a heartache, at the same time researches ECG of changes do not reveal. Allergic reactions which are shown in response to earlier well transferable products and drugs are possible. Such reactions are the evidence of changes in immune system of an organism. In general changes in a state of health which take place after a menopause sometimes affect quality of life of the woman.
Menopausal metabolic syndrome
The diagnosis "a menopausal metabolic syndrome" is often made to women at whom menopause came a few years ago. As a rule, patients in a vozasta after 60 flyings suffer from such frustration. About a quarter of all women suffers from this syndrome, according to medical statistics. Till present time the reasons leading to development of such frustration are definitely not established. But nevertheless specialists speak about influence on manifestations of a menopausal metabolic syndrome of a hormonal imbalance, hypodynamia, existence of chronic diseases, and also absence in an organism of some the substances, necessary for its functioning.
The main signs of this state is obesity, growth of indicators of glucose in the woman's blood, increase of the ABP, and also developing of diseases of cardiovascular system. The combination these factors can bear serious threat not only for health, but also for the woman's life.
The factors called above have accurate interrelation. Display of obesity is caused by natural addition in weight in the period of a menopause under the influence of hormonal instability. Here it is important to correct accurately way of life and habits in food. However sometimes women who suffer from a periodic depression begin to eat too much heavy food. As a result, gradually weight increases. Obesity, in turn, leads to increase in content of glucose in blood and to development of a diabetes mellitus.
Process of increase in weight provokes postponement of fat and around internals. Respectively, load of heart considerably raises, it conducts to cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, such processes can be irreversible.
Thus, if the doctor notes existence at the patient of several criteria in the period of a menstrual pause (sharp growth of body weight, constant slackness, an asthma, supertension at rest, irritability manifestations), then it has all bases to suspect a menopausal syndrome.
Specialists note that the menopausal syndrome most often develops at the women having hereditary tendency to a heavy current of a climax and also in the presence of chronic diseases, disturbances of a monthly cycle in the reproductive period. Women who smoke suffer from a heavy current of a climax more often, and also those who had an early menopause. The menopausal syndrome is more often observed at not giving birth women.
Diagnosis of a menopausal syndrome
Carrying out diagnosis of a menopausal syndrome, the doctor, first of all, attentively conducts survey of the patient. Sometimes it is difficult to diagnose a pathological current of a climax in connection with the aggravated chronic diseases which take place at the patient. In this regard the current of a climax is even more aggravated, besides it can be shown atipichesk. Therefore often the doctor recommends to the patient to pass inspection and at other doctors — the neurologist, the cardiologist, the endocrinologist. For confirmation of the diagnosis research of level of hormones in blood is also conducted. Sometimes there is a need of carrying out cytologic research of smears, and also carrying out the histologic analysis of scraping of an endometria.
Treatment of a menopausal syndrome
Practicing treatment of a menopause, the gynecologist directs efforts to reduction of the manifestations of a climax which are negatively influencing a condition of the woman. To facilitate a state during inflow, and also to reduce their frequency, to the woman appoint a therapy course drugs-antidepressants.
Not to allow development and progressing of osteoporosis, reception of non-hormonal drugs-biophosphonates which do not allow intensive loss of a bone tissue practices. Such drugs are sometimes appointed instead of estrogen.
If the woman is strongly disturbed by urogenital symptoms, it is reasonable to it to apply administration of estrogen in the form of tablets or cream vaginalno.
However the most noticeable effect at a climax gives treatment by means of hormonal drugs. Treatment by the medicamentous means containing estrogen allows to reduce considerably the frequency and intensity of inflow, to eliminate unpleasant feelings in generative organs. Generally treatment by natural estrogen practices. For the prevention of development of hyperplastic processes in an endometria estrogen combines with gestagena or with androgens. Hormonal therapy has to last for several years not to allow emergence at the woman of a serious illness which is provoked by a menopausal syndrome.
Reception of hormonal means during a pathological climax is not appointed to women with oncological diseases of bodies of reproductive system, and also to the patients suffering from blood coagulation disturbance, thrombophlebitis, uterine bleedings, renal failures or a liver.
Before appointing a course of treatment the drugs containing hormones, the doctor surely conducts ultrasonography, cytologic research, biochemical analysis of blood.
Hormonal therapy is defined depending on what stage of a climax takes place at the patient. If it is about a premenopauza, then reception of hormonal drugs is appointed cyclically. In the period of a postmenopause in view of atorofichesky changes in an endometria, and also other negative phenomena for a female organism hormones should be accepted constantly.
At a pathological climax the most effective is system treatment by a combination of the drugs containing hormones. Besides, if necessary other medicamentous means for the treatment of hypertensia, cardiovascular diseases and other illnesses accompanying a climax are in parallel appointed.
Sometimes the attending physician also advises the patient to get advice of the nutritionist to make the correct food allowance. Besides, the woman is recommended to spend much time in the fresh air, to sleep and have a rest fully, to move and avoid more stresses and negative emotions. Timely treatment of a menopausal syndrome allows to improve considerably a condition of the woman, her working capacity and health.