Metabolism

The metabolism is a set of the chemical changes arising in an organism which provide its life activity. These processes regulate reproduction, growth, reaction to external factors, a possibility of preservation of integrity of an organism.

The metabolism is carried out between cells and intercellular liquid which invariable composition is provided thanks to blood circulation. During metabolic reaction there is a continuous process of transformation of one substances in others, and such reaction is provided thanks to enzymes. They are capable to work as biological catalysts, and also to deactivate chemical changes. On the other hand an important problem of enzymes is regulation of metabolic ways (that is series of chemical changes) in response to signals of other cells and change of external conditions.

Suitability of a specific molecule for use as energy source is defined by features of a metabolism of an organism. Metabolism speed also exerts impact on need of an organism for food.

The main components of a metabolism and way of a metabolism are similar for many beings in this connection, scientists draw a conclusion about unity of an origin of live organisms. Carboxylic acids, for example, which are intermediate substance of a cycle of tricarboxylic acids are present at all beings. Such similarities in the course of a metabolism, most likely, are connected with efficiency of metabolic ways and with their emergence in evolution at the earliest stages.

Substances of an organic origin which are a part of all organisms are provided by fats, carbohydrates, nucleinic and amino acids generally. For ensuring life activity these molecules play the most important role therefore metabolic reactions are directed to that at construction of cells to create these molecules, and also for their destruction that will allow to use the released energy.

The metabolic rate is in many respects connected with a constitution of the person. Pure body weight without fat and metabolic rate are in direct dependence. Considering that fact that at men the percentage ratio of fat with body weight is lower, than women, it is possible to say that metabolism speed in a man's organism is on average 15-20% higher with confidence. Hormones, heredity, level of an exercise stress also play not the last role in the speed of this process.

Most actively process of a metabolism proceeds in muscles, brain fabric, abdominal organs. It is connected with the fact that these processes are the most important for ensuring life activity, than, for example, the processes proceeding in a hypodermic fatty tissue.

It is possible to carry the following to the major factors influencing a metabolism:

  • The quantity of the eaten food and metabolism directly depend from each other: than the first indicator, than below and the second is lower. At the same time increase in quantity of the consumed food stuffs can lead both to delay, and to acceleration of a metabolism. If excess meal leads to emergence of excess fat, there comes delay of a metabolism, but on the other hand its possible acceleration can be a consequence of the raised load of bodies of an organism.
  • Quality of food also influences a metabolic rate. The quality food, protein-rich, accelerates data process while carbohydrates are capable to lower it.
  • Exercise stresses in 10-15 minutes are capable to accelerate a metabolism. The more the body got used to exercise stresses, the less after them the metabolism accelerates, thus, change of this process at athletes after trainings is insignificant.

Disbolism can lead to serious violations in activity of an organism. Problems digestive, cardiovascular and other systems quite often begin with this disturbance. In that case to help resolve a situation the doctor the endocrinologist or the nutritionist can.

Interesting facts

Several centuries scientists tried to solve essence of a metabolism. Early studies were directed to studying of a metabolism of an organism in general whereas now emphasis is placed on separate reactions. The first concepts of a metabolism occurred in scientific works of the 13th century, and results of the first experiments connected with a metabolism were published only in the 17th century. In early works it is described that chemical changes in an organism "manpower" manages.

Section: M