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Mycosis is an illness which developing is caused by the fungi capable to infect the person, animals and plants. Its rather slow development, frequent recurrence (unlike a bacterial infection) and lack of long immunity after treatment is characteristic of this disease. The fungal infection in certain cases causes only a small inflammation, however under its influence chronic abscesses, ulcers or opukholepodobny granulomas can become aggravated. Mycosis can progress and even to lead to a lethal outcome. Today it is accepted to distinguish system mycosis which extends in an organism in general, and also the dermatomycosis affecting skin, nails, hair. System mycosis – more serious illness. Now in laboratory mycosis fungi activators are easily identified.
These are the fungus diseases striking an upper layer of epidermis. Most often the infection gets to a human body in the course of contact with the diseased, and also when carrying their footwear, clothes, using personal objects in life. Most often the patient is infected in public places with the increased humidity – in pools, baths, etc. At development of an infection mycosis of skin provokes development erity, expressed a peeling and skin coarsening in places of defeat. Treatment of mycoses of skin assumes both the general therapy, and use of means of local influence. The doctor defines a technique of treatment of mycosis of skin first of all depending on where defeat is localized.
Mycosis of feet
Mycosis of feet is chronic mycotic damage of skin on soles, in boundaries - and submanual folds of feet. Also defeat can reach brushes and integuments on other parts of a body. Mycosis of feet is to not hereditary infectious diseases. Developing of mycosis of feet is provoked by a fungal infection. According to specialists, about 60% of adults suffer from it. As a rule, mycosis overtakes people of working-age, is less often diagnosed for children and elderly people. About seventy percent of all patients are made by males. Among the risk factors provoking developing of mycosis of feet it is considered to be insufficiently careful observance of requirements to hygiene of skin, continuous carrying footwear which badly passes air, frequent stay in conditions of high temperature, humidity, and also in water. The course of a disease provokes the high level of perspiration of skin of feet, diseases breaking a trophicity of the lower extremities, therapy by corticosteroids, a condition of an immunodeficiency.
Forms and symptoms of mycosis of feet
It is accepted to divide three forms of mycosis of feet: disgidrotichesky, giperkeratotichesky and intertriginozny. Vesicular rashes which are grouped on skin in the form of rings, plaques are characteristic of a disgidrotichesky form of mycosis of feet. They are shown generally in the field of the arch and on lateral surfaces of feet. There is their opening later, and there are erosion covered over time by exudative and purulent crusts. At a giperkeratotichesky form of mycosis on soles of foot there are erythematic and squamous centers. At an intertriginozny form of a disease on skin there are erosion and sites of matserirovanny epidermis between fingers of feet and pleated fingers. In certain cases in these parts there are also vesicles and bubbles which are filled by transparent exudate. Most often skin in intervals between the third and fourth finger is surprised. At mycosis in a disgidrotichesky and intertriginozny form, as a rule, there is an itch, during walking pains are shown and if consecutive infection or eczematization also joins this disease, then the person can lose ability fully to work.
Diagnosis of mycosis of feet
First of all the method of visual survey during which the doctor carefully examines soles, interdigital folds of feet, nails and integuments on other struck bodies is used. As laboratory methods of establishment of the diagnosis microscopic examination of pathological material is applied, also the specialist makes crops on Saburo's circle. At statement of the diagnosis it is important to differentsiirovat mycosis of feet with some other diseases — psoriasis of soles, pustular psoriasis, an acrodermatitis, Andrews's microbid, eczema of feet, an erythrasma.
Treatment of mycosis of feet
For the most effective treatment of mycosis of feet the complex of local and general anti-mycotic therapy for the purpose of impact on the found pathogenetic factors is used. There are many medicines which are successfully applied to outside treatment of mycosis of feet. So, today doctors appoint for treatment Ketokonazol, Terbinafin, Amorolfin, Clotrimazolum, Izokonazol, Naftifin, Miconazolum, Toltsiklat, etc. If persistent cases take place, then in the course of therapy use drugs against a fungus of systemic action, for example, Terbinafin, griseofulvin, ketokonazol. If at the patient acute mycosis of skin developed, then treatment is carried out in a hospital with observance of a bed rest.
Prevention of mycosis of feet
As prevention of mycosis of feet it is strongly recommended to respect carefully the rules of hygiene, not to use someone else's footwear, to process feet after visit of a sauna, a shower or other public places. Also it is necessary to pay special attention to fight against the increased perspiration of feet.
Mycosis of nails
According to specialists, about 1/10 all population suffer from mycosis of nails (onychomycosis). Than the person is more senior, especially the risk of a disease is high. It is provoked by many factors — pathology of vessels, excessive weight, a diabetes mellitus, foot osteoarthropathies. The causative agent of this disease is the onychomycosis, less often infections of nails arise under the influence of mold and barmy mushrooms which show special resistance to some antifungal means. The illness is often shown after emergence of various damages on nails and feet. As a rule, it the damages arising because of too close footwear.
It is accepted to allocate three forms of mycosis of nails which are defined depending on that, the disease-producing factor was implemented where exactly. It is distal and lateral, proximal and it is superficial forms. The distal form is diagnosed most often. Penetration of parts of a mushroom from the affected skin in a nail is characteristic of this form of a disease. Gradually infection gets more deeply inside, to nail roots, at the same time the growth rate of a fungus can exceed in the opposite direction the speed of increase in a nail. In view of delay of growth of nails at people of advanced age infection with onychomycoses is observed more often. At a disease in a distal form, first of all, loses transparency a nail plate, on it there are spots of white and yellow color, the nail to become reinforced. In case of development of a proximal form mushrooms get inside through the proximal roller of a nail. Spots of white and yellow color appear at the root of a nail. If the superficial form of mycosis is diagnosed for the patient, then mycosis of nails is shown by superficial spots on a nail plate. All forms of an onychomycosis later certain time strike all departments of a nail owing to what the plate of a nail collapses, and its functions as a result are lost. In that case the form of mycosis of nails is called total dystrophic. As a rule, at mycosis of nails there is a paronychia, that is inflammatory process of the periungual roller. Because of the paronychia aggravations arising periodically in a nail there are dystrophic changes: there are cross furrows on a plate. For confirmation of the similar diagnosis generally microscopic studying of fragments of a plate of a nail is used. Also make crops for the purpose of allocation of culture.
Treatment of mycosis of nails
As well as in case of other types of mycosis, at an onychomycosis system therapy and local means is used. The combination therapy with use of both methods is sometimes appointed. Local medicines, as a rule, use at treatment of a superficial form of mycosis or an initial stage of a distal form. Also similar means are appointed in a case display of a disease on single nails. All other forms and stages of a disease demand use of system therapy.
As local means for treatment of mycosis of nails use nail varnishes with antifungal action. So, an efficient method is the similar drug Lotseril used only once in a week. Use of local methods of treatment is conducted before full treatment. In the course of system therapy drugs of a terbinafin, itrakonazol and flukonazol are appointed. Duration of treatment depends on what clinical form of an onychomycosis takes place. Also prevalence of defeat and level its penetration under nails is considered. Also the age of the patient is important. The combined treatment is appointed when system therapy has no due effect. Treatment always happens for a long time. But if not to make timely treatment of mycosis, then over time it extends to new body parts.
Prevention of mycosis of nails
It is accepted to distinguish primary and secondary form of prevention of fungus diseases. Prevention primary are the methods urged to prevent development of mycosis in yet not sick people. Prevention secondary is directed to protection against repetition of mycosis of nails. As primary preventive methods it is necessary to follow rules of hygiene, to look after carefully nails. As methods of secondary prevention, except observance of elementary standards of hygiene, it is necessary to use antifungal drugs if necessary.