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Microsporia – the disease provoked by a fungus. Damage of skin and hair is characteristic of this illness, in more exceptional cases the fungus strikes also nail plates. This disease received the name according to the name of a disease-producing factor — a sort Microsporum mushroom. Also this illness is known under the name "cutting deprive" in view of a number of characteristics of its manifestation.
After hit on skin of the person the fungus is implemented into an integument then its active reproduction begins. If near the place where the mushroom got, there are hair bulbs, then disputes of a mushroom burgeon, and the hair as a result is surprised. The mushroom very quickly extends on a hair owing to what the cuticle collapses, and between its scales disputes collect. Thereof the mushroom completely surrounds a hair and fills with itself a bulb.
After a fungus of feet the microsporia is considered the most eurysynusic infection of fungal type. The illness this can be met often, the microsporia is very infectious. For this reason a microsporia at children – the frequent phenomenon. At adult age the microsporia is more often shown at women of young age. However in view of existence in hair of the adult of organic acids which considerably slow down growth of a mushroom, the microsporia occurs at them less often.
The main source of distribution of a disease are cats, is more rare – dogs. The person catches an illness during close contact with a sick animal or with those objects which it infected with scales or wool. After hit to the soil with wool or scales the mushroom can remain viable for 1–3 months.
At a sick animal the microsporia is shown by characteristic sites of baldness on a muzzle, outside of auricles, sometimes on paws. However carriers of an infection can be even those cats who externally look healthy.
A certain seasonality is characteristic of a disease that is connected with frequent contacts of children and animals in the flying. Therefore the peak of incidence of a microsporia at children falls on autumn months, and decrease in incidence is observed in the spring.
The incubation interval at a microsporia lasts 5–7 days. The course of a disease and its manifestation depend on that, the centers of defeat are located where exactly and how deeply the activator got. It is accepted to allocate a microsporia of smooth skin and a microsporia of pilar part of the head.
At a microsporia of smooth skin on site where the mushroom was implemented, there is a towering edematous spot of red color. It has a clear boundary, and over time its diameter increases. The edge of a spot creates the roller which towers over skin. It consists of small small knots, bubbles, crusts. Gradually the center of a spot becomes light pink in view of permission of an inflammation. On a surface the peeling is observed. The center of a disease looks as a ring. At a microsporia of smooth skin it is observed generally from one to three similar centers. Most often they are shown on face skin, necks, shoulders, forearms. Sometimes the patient feels a moderate itch of these places. The microsporia at children, and also at young women is shown sometimes by the expressed inflammation and very insignificant peeling.
It is difficult to diagnose a fungus for people who have tendency to an allergy in view of its masking by symptoms of the main process. At the same time the use of local hormonal drugs can strengthen displays of a fungal infection only.
Kind of a microsporia at which skin of palms, nail plates, soles – the phenomenon extremely rare is surprised. At damage of nails only the outer edge of a nail, as a rule, is surprised. At first there is a dimmy spot which finds a white shade later. Later the nail in this place to become very soft and can collapse.
From microsporia of pilar part of the head children generally suffer. The microsporia at children of 5-12 years is shown. Sometimes this disease passes independently during puberty of teenagers of which change in composition of skin fat is characteristic. The microsporia of pilar part of the head almost does not strike children who have hair of red color.
At this form of a microsporia its centers appear on the top, a darkness and on temples. As a rule, on the head there are two centers which diameter makes from 2 to 5 cm. They have a clear boundary and a round or oval outline. Sometimes on the edge of the large center there are eliminations – the small centers which diameter makes 0,5–1,5 cm. In the onset of the illness there is a shelled site on site of infection. At first the mushroom is only in the mouth of a hair bulb. Close it is even possible to consider a scale of white color which in the form of a ring surrounds a hair. Approximately in a week the microsporia affects hair then they become very brittle and fragile. Hair break off and on site defeats they look as if they were cut. This phenomenon gave the name "cutting deprive". In the place of defeat by a microsporia skin looks edematous, red, and on its surface small scales of grayish-white color are observed.
If at the person the suppurative form of a microsporia develops, then the strong inflammation because of what soft red-blue nodes with pustules on a surface appear takes place. If to pressure them, then there is a pus. The suppurative form of a microsporia arises at the wrong treatment, presence of other serious diseases, and also at too late address to the specialist.
Diagnosis of a microsporia
Diagnosis of this disease is carried out by the dermatologist. To confirm the corresponding diagnosis, special researches — luminescent, cultural and microscopic are used.
At luminescent research the luminescence of the hair affected with a fungus under Wood's lamp comes to light in the bright green color. It will be out in the dark room. In such a way it is possible to define the activator, to find the affected hair, to estimate productivity of treatment, to carry out control of those who had contact with patients, and also to define whether the animal is the infection carrier.
At microscopic examination under a microscope study the scales taken from the centers at damage of smooth skin. If defeat of pilar part of the head takes place, then parts of hair are studied. At such research find threads of a mycelium and small disputes of a mushroom.
At cultural research there is an opportunity to identify a mushroom activator. This research is applied in case of existence of positive takes of luminescent and microscopic researches. Definition of a sort and type of the activator allows to appoint the most effective treatment of an illness. In the course of this type of research of a scale or hair are located on a medium. After crops growth of colonies the Microsporum begins for the third day.
Treatment of a microsporia
For effective treatment of a microsporia of smooth skin the antifungal drugs used outwardly are appointed. The scheme of treatment can be following: in the morning on the illness centers nanositsya2-5% iodine tincture, and in the evening — antifungal ointment. Today there are many drugs for treatment of a microsporia. These are traditional sulfuric, sulfur-salicylic, sulfur-tar ointments; modern drugs Clotrimazolum, izokonazol, bifonazol, tsiklopiroks, Terbinafin.
If the course of a disease is aggravated with pronounced inflammatory process, then for treatment the combined drugs as a part of which there are hormones are appointed. In the presence of a bacterial infection Triderm is effective. If the microsporia in a deep form is diagnosed, it is necessary to apply means which contain Dimexidum.
If the fungus affects hair, it is necessary to carry out system antifungal therapy. For treatment of a microsporia of pilar part griseofulvin is actively used. It is an antibiotic which develops a mold mushroom. Drug is let out in the form of tablets, the course of treatment, as a rule, to last about two months. Throughout the entire period it is necessary to shave off every week hair and twice a week to wash the head. In parallel with reception of tablets it is necessary to rub antifungal ointment in the defeat center. As alternative drug it is often applied terbinafin recently (lamizit). It is also let out in the form of tablets.
Prevention of a microsporia
As preventive measures of a microsporia early detection and effective treatment of patients is very important. For this purpose in child care facilities it is necessary to perform medical examinations regularly. If the sick child is found, he should be isolated from other children and to take measures for urgent treatment of a microsporia. Important also in time and qualitatively to disinfect things of sick people. Careful examination of all who contacted to the person who got sick with a microsporia is conducted. It is important to examine also periodically domestic animals regarding identification of the illness centers at them and to undertake measures for their treatment.
Section: Dermatology (Skin diseases)