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The myopia is the illness of eyes which is very extended today. The better known name of this illness – short-sightedness. This disease is known since the most ancient times: for the first time it was mentioned still by the ancient Greek Aristotle. So, in the works he noted that some people have a requirement to bring a subject very close to eyes in order that it is good to consider it, and at the same time they should squint strongly.
Modification of a form of an eyeglobe is the main reason of manifestation of a myopia at the person. Gradually the eyeglobe from a form of a circle turns into an oval. In view of similar change light is broken mistakenly, and its beams pass through an eyeglobe, and their focusing happens opposite to a retina. As a result of people distinguishes distant objects it is indistinct, at people focusing of light happens to normal sight directly on a retina.
As a result of people for which short-sightedness is diagnosed well distinguishes objects close, but at the same time afar he sees very badly in view of what it should use points or contact lenses which have negative value of optical power. Visual acuity at the person sick with a myopia, becomes lower than 1,0
In the last several flying specialists fix noticeable increase in number of patients with short-sightedness. So, today in the world about one billion people use points or contact lenses. Feature of a myopia is that this illness is in most cases shown at people at young age.
As one of factors of development of this disease doctors define a hereditary factor. As a rule, the myopia with hereditary conditionality is most often shown at female representatives. It happens to certain changes of a female organism during puberty. If in a family short-sightedness is diagnosed for both parents, then at children the myopia is shown approximately in half of cases. It is considered to be that the hereditary factor will be defined by some defects in the course of synthesis of protein which is required for formation of a cover of an eye of a sclera. This process is also stopped by shortage of a number of microelements in a human body. However not always development of a myopia happens in view of heredity.
Too strong tension of eyes is considered one more reason of development of a myopia. Generally the myopia begins to be shown at children in school days, and also at young people in the course of study in higher educational institutions. In some cases the long tension of eyes at incorrectly established lighting, bad hygienic a condition for brainwork, long work with the computer equipment and excessive interest in viewing of TV programs becomes the factors provoking development of a myopia.
Also development of a myopia provokes weakening of eye muscles. This problem is subject to correction if in time to apply a complex of physical exercises which was specially developed for strengthening of these muscles.
The accommodation spasm, change of a form of a cornea (keratoconus), and also ectopia lentis owing to an injury and a phacosclerosis can provoke a myopia.
The wrong correction of sight in case of the first symptoms of a myopia can also become the reason of progressing of short-sightedness. Sometimes in similar cases the amblyopia (a so-called syndrome of a lazy eye), and also squint is shown. Selection of the correct points and contact lenses is very important for work, otherwise provoking of a strong muscle tension and, as a result, increase in degree of a myopia is possible.
Features of a myopia
Earlier specialists recommended to limit a little physical activity of those who have short-sightedness. Today similar approach does not practice any more. However, too strong exercise stress nevertheless is not recommended to the people having problems with sight.
At a myopia it is very important to take all measures for correction of this lack of sight in time, disability and decline in quality of life can be a result of development of short-sightedness.
As a rule, the first symptoms of a myopia begin to arise at the child aged from 7 till 12 flyings. The illness progresses approximately till 20 flyings at women and 22 years at men. Further sight in most cases to become stable, however sometimes negative changes can last further. In development of a myopia the sagittal axis of an eye, a cell of a retina which is located in a zone of a maximum of light sensitivity increases. Also other illnesses which develop against short-sightedness can turn out to be consequence of it. So, at aged people after 55 flyings the age makulodistrofiya sometimes develops. However in case of existence of a heavy myopia this disease can be shown also in young people
Types of a myopia
Specialists allocate three degrees of a myopia: a weak myopia – no more than 3 dioptries; an average myopia – no more than 6 dioptries; a high myopia – 6 dioptries. According to features of a clinical current it is accepted to distinguish not progressing and progressing myopia.
In case of display of the short-sightedness which is not progressing an illness is anomaly of a refraction. The patient in this case worse sees the objects located in the distance. The similar illness korrigirutsya, additional treatment is not required. The progressing myopia is a disease in the course of which myopia degree for a year increases on one and more dioptries. The progressing short-sightedness most often is shown at school students when visual loadings sharply increase. Besides in process there is a growth of an organism of the child. Respectively, also an eye grows. At the progressing myopia it is not necessary to lift sharply weights, to be engaged in those sports in which the body is exposed to sharp concussions (the sport connected with jumps, a number of types of fight, boxing and other sports). Similar occupations considerably increase risk of peeling of a retina and even a blindness in the future.
Sometimes the progressing short-sightedness stops after completion of growth of a human body. In other cases the myopia progresses constantly and as a result at the patient the myopia of high degree is shown (sight worsens till 30-40 dioptries). The myopia of high degree is called also miopichesky illness. This disease is very serious illness, it results in disability which is connected with pathology of an organ of sight.
Diagnosis of a myopia
To define that at the person the myopia, rather simply develops. The child at whom similar problems with sight are shown begins to squint, frown when looking at a certain subject, very close brings the book to eyes, brings closer eyes to the monitor. In the presence of such manifestations it is necessary to see a doctor behind consultation.
If short-sightedness is diagnosed for the child, then it is regularly very important to check every year parameters of eyes, in certain cases it should be done even more often. It is important to address to specialized clinics or offices for carrying out diagnosis on the special equipment.
There is a number of widely applied myopia diagnostic methods: automatic refractometry, ophthalmometry, preliminary correction, tonometriya, etc.
If necessary the ophthalmologist selects contact correction of sight, carries out treatment, applying reasonable methods, makes an individual course of exercises for eyes.
For obtaining data on a course of a disease it is important to test a condition of sight of the child in house conditions. This information will also be provided by the children's ophthalmologist.
Treatment of a myopia
In children's ophthalmology therapeutic therapy of short-sightedness is most often applied. However also operational treatment is in certain cases applied.
First of all, the ophthalmologist carries out the correct correction of sight, choosing the glasses or contact lenses which are optimum suitable the patient.
Under supervision of the specialist training of muscles owing to which tension myopia degree increases is made. For this purpose often use laser stimulation, video computer correction of sight, drugs for an instillation in eyes, special remedial gymnastics for eyes.
In the course of treatment of a myopia at least, than once is carried out ophthalmologic diagnosis by measurement of the longitudinal size of an eye by means of ultrasound to half a year.
In need of process of therapy the drops relaxing muscles of eyes (Atropine, Tropikamid, the Phenylephine hydrochloride) and medicines which have vasodilating influence (cinnarizine, piracetam) are appointed.
Also in the course of therapy of short-sightedness to the patient a number of actions of fortifying character is appointed: acceptance of an alternating douche, regular swimming, massage of a collar zone and other methods which are offered by the ophthalmologist.
Also the adequate diet of food in which the balance of proteins, vitamins, microelements is considered is important (zinc, copper, magnesium, etc.).
Correction of a myopia
Today successfully apply three most widespread methods of correction of a myopia. The most widely known method are points. It is idle time, cheap and all an available way to improve sight. However points are very inconvenient in life, they worsen quality of everyday life. Besides full correction of sight with their help cannot be reached. Points do not allow to see fully lateral sight. At the wrong selection of points of an eye can constantly overtire, and, as a result, the myopia will progress.
If to compare contact lenses to points, then the last have a number of clear advantages. First of all, they do not prevent to lead active lifestyle, to play sports. But at the same time many people feel explicit discomfort in the course of their carrying. Many people at the same time suffer from manifestation of allergic reactions to which the constant redness of eyes accompanies. Also lenses can provoke infectious complications which in especially hard cases threaten with a total blindness. Contact lenses are forbidden to be carried to the people who got sick with a catarrhal illness.
One more modern way of correction of sight at a myopia is a laser correction. It can be applied only that who already was 18 years old. Performance of such operation can return to the patient full-fledged sight owing to change of a form of a cornea. Similar operation is carried out on an outpatient basis. However in this case, first of all, consultation of the ophthalmologist is necessary.
Besides, in certain cases for correction of sight at short-sightedness the lensektomiya (refraction replacement of a crystalline lens), implantation of fakichny lenses, a radial keratotomy, a keratoplasty (keratoplasty) is carried out. If the myopia of high degree, then methods of correction and treatment is diagnosed for the patient the doctor selects in an individual order.
Prevention of a myopia
To warn this disease, it is necessary to follow several rules constantly. First of all, it is important that all loads of sight occurred only at high-quality lighting: or at a ceiling light, or at a desk lamp of 60-100 W. Fluorescent lamps influence sight negatively.
It is important to alternate constantly intense loads of sight to rest and active motive exercises. It should be taken into account at the same time that at short-sightedness higher than 3 dioptries it is impossible to lift weights and to jump.
At intense visual activity it is necessary to do breaks each 30-40 minutes and to fill a pause with gymnastics for eyes.
It is necessary to show consideration very much for protection of eyes against various injuries and hit in eyes of foreign objects in the course of some works. Owing to an injury there can be a defeat of a third cranial nerve, an ectopia lentis, hemorrhage.
Provided that short-sightedness already began to develop, correction of sight by means of points considerably will slow down process of progressing of an illness.
It is regularly necessary to accept vitamin complexes and to provide good and various nutrition.
Section: Diseases of eyes