And whether you know...
December 9, 2011
The miositis is a state at which muscles owing to influence of the most various factors are surprised. It can be inflammations, injuries, defeats of toxic character. Pain, muscular weakness are characteristic of this illness, and in certain cases there is even an atrophy of muscles. At a miositis there are inflammatory processes in one or at once in several skeletal muscles. So the inflammation can develop in a neck, a back, a thorax. If the inflammation developed in a large number of muscles, then it is accepted to call such pathology a polymiositis. If defeat happens not only in muscles, but process joins also an integument, then this disease is called a dermatomyositis.
Local pains which intensity increases after a certain interval of time are characteristic of this disease. Pain amplifies in the course of movements at which the affected muscles are reduced. The patient feels pain and during a palpation. In view of morbidity during an illness restriction of the movement of joints is shown. Weakness of muscles to become more expressed over time, the affected muscles can atrophy over time. Also the miositis can develop into a chronic illness. In that case its aggravation occurs during unstable weather conditions, after overcooling, at night.
As origins of a miositis it is accepted to allocate infectious diseases (quinsy, flu, rheumatism, etc.); infections of parasitic type (trichinosis, echinococcosis); toxic influences (gout, diabetes mellitus). Also the miositis can turn out to be consequence of professional features of work of drivers, pianists, typists, that is specialists who owing to a profession constantly strain the same group of muscles. The illness arises owing to stay of the person in an inconvenient pose a long time, after strong overcooling (a neck miositis), a muscle tension, owing to myotonia when swimming. In case of development of a purulent miositis by its reason there can be a local infection.
Types of a miositis
Specialists define different types of miozit. In most cases the miositis affects wide muscles of a back, a neck, shoulders, muscles of buttocks are less often affected. But the neck miositis is considered the most dangerous. At this illness in a neck at first the dull ache giving to the area of a nape in shoulders or between a shovel is felt. At a neck miositis, as a rule, cervical vertebrae can normally move, but nevertheless sometimes because of pain there are movement restrictions.
Emergence of an acute purulent miositis very often is complication of purulent diseases or septicopyemias. Its emergence is provoked by a streptococcus, staphylococcus, a pneumococcus, other microorganisms. Developing of abscesses, necroses, phlegmons in muscles is characteristic of this form of an illness. At this form of a miositis the patient feels severe pain which becomes even more notable during the movement or a palpation of muscles.
Owing to diseases of infectious character infectious not purulent miozita are shown. In this case pain and weakness of muscles are expressed much less, than at a purulent miositis.
At patients with autoimmune illnesses the miositis is an element of a clinical picture. The miositis arising owing to parasitic infections develops because of changes of toksiko-allergic character which happen in an organism because of presence of parasites.
Weakness in muscles, atrophic processes in muscles, adjournment of calcium in connecting fabric is characteristic of an ossifying miositis. At a miositis of lumbar muscles a characteristic symptom are the aching back pains. Such illness proceeds the long period, is the frequent reason of lumbar pains. At the same time some density of muscles, their morbidity at a palpation is observed.
At a polymiositis not one is surprised, and several groups of muscles. At this illness there are no displays of very severe pain, however the expressed muscular weakness is observed. The illness begins with the fact that to the patient to become heavy to make usual actions, for example, to rise after steps. Later, owing to atrophic processes in neck muscles to the person to become it is difficult to hold the head vertically. At the last stage of an illness the chewing, deglutitory, participating in the respiratory act muscles will atrophy. Also at patients with a polymiositis arthritis sometimes develops. If to undertake the correct tactics of treatment and to carry out it timely, then the patient completely recovers.
The dermatomyositis is especially often shown at women in young or in the middle age. Genetic factors are considered as the presumable reason of this illness. The stress, cold, overcooling, too long stay under sunshine can be the reason for which there is a start of a course of a disease. Skin is surprised red or violet rash which develops on hands, the person, upper part of the body. At a dermatomyositis of the patient complains also of manifestation of weakness, high temperature, a fever. The person begins to lose weight sharply. At this illness symptoms can be shown as gradually, and to accrue promptly. At a similar illness of a muscle often become flabby, and under integuments the calcium salts provoking emergence of pain collect.
Acute and chronic miositis
The disease can be divided into an acute and chronic miositis, also distinguish professional and catarrhal, purulent and not purulent miozit. On condition of existence at the patient of an undertreated acute stage of a miositis the illness can gradually take chronic shape. At a chronic miositis of pain arise in a case overcooling, changes of weather, at night. The chronic form of a miositis arises also owing to an infectious disease.
The main a symptom of this disease is pain which is shown as aching. During the movement or a contact to muscles pain amplifies. Over time pain can accrue. If to feel muscles, then small knots and tyazh which are especially painful are found. Sometimes available small hypostases, erubescence. Also patients with a miositis can have a fever, headaches. At the neck miositis arising, as a rule, owing to overcooling, pain gives to a nape, between a shovel, to shoulders.
The miositis of masseters causes tightening of jaws of convulsive character, a muscle tension. The patient cannot sometimes speak and chew at all. If not to undertake timely treatment, then the illness can progress in view of what the inflammation will extend to new groups of muscles.
Diagnosis of a miositis
At statement of the diagnosis "miositis" it is necessary to distinguish a miositis and osteochondrosis of cervical department of a backbone. X-ray inspection is for this purpose conducted, and also it becomes clear whether mobility of vertebrae is kept and whether degenerative defeats take place. The specialist studies complaints of the patient. Later blood test is carried out: at a miositis in blood a superactivity of muscular enzymes is observed, there are specific antibodies. For diagnosis the electromyography is used.
Treatment of a miositis
Treatment of a miositis should be begun surely after manifestation of the first symptoms of this illness. As therapy many different methods from which distinguish electrostimulation of muscles and nerves by means of physical therapy and a farmakopunktura are used. In the course of complex therapy analgetics, means with vasodilating action are used. If the purulent miositis is diagnosed for the patient, to it appoint reception of antibiotics. At this form of a miositis sometimes it is necessary: opening of an abscess, drainage of a wound, its subsequent washing by antiseptic agents.
Good results are observed after passing of a course of massage performed by the experienced specialist. Sessions of regular physiotherapy exercises are appointed sick. However in this case the attending physician has to control all movements of the patient and distribution of loading strictly. Also vacuum therapy, reflexotherapy is applied. In house conditions dry heat is applied. So, the struck place can be wound with a woolen scarf. The method of grinding of the struck place is applied to treatment of a miositis also. For this purpose the essential oils warmed and dissolved in water will approach (the greatest effect brings grinding by oil of an eucalyptus, marjoram, lavender). It is desirable that the patient at first stayed at rest. Also national methods of treatment of a miositis are widely used.
Prevention of a miositis
For the purpose of prevention of a miositis it is very important to warn any of an overstrain of muscles, to avoid injuries, not to stay on drafts, on cold. It is necessary to adhere to active lifestyle, to diversify a food allowance with healthy food, always correctly and in time to treat diseases of infectious character.