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Urolithiasis of kidneys
The urolithiasis (other names — a nephrolithiasis, a nephrolithiasis, an urolithiasis) is a disease at which development in the person in kidneys or in other bodies of an urinary system stones are formed. Symptoms of an urolithiasis can be shown for the first time at the person practically at any age. As diagnosis testifies, the illness can develop both at newborns, and at people of advanced age. But depending on age of the sick person the stone type differs. So, at elderly patients urate stones are more often formed. At the same time proteinaceous stones occur at patients who need treatment of an urolithiasis, much more rare. Most often at an urolithiasis stones with the mixed structure are formed. The size of stones can be a miscellaneous. So, if it is about stones up to 3 mm in size in the diameter, then not stones, and sand in kidneys are defined. Large stones can sometimes reach up to 15 cm. There are also descriptions of cases when stones weighed more than 1 kg.
Before appointing therapy of an illness or to practice treatment by folk remedies, whenever possible it is necessary to define the presumable reasons owing to which at the person urolithiasis signs are noted. The main reason of emergence of stones in kidneys are serious violations in the course of a metabolism, in particular changes in chemical and water-salt balance of blood. But at the same time an important role in development of an illness is played by existence of some factors having to formation of stones. First of all, this development in the person of diseases of a gastrointestinal tract, and also illnesses of bodies of urinogenital system, diseases of bones, dysfunctions of parathyroids. Can provoke emergence of stones also vitamin deficit. It is especially important to fill a lack of vitamins of group D therefore even prevention of an illness provides their reception.
Food – not less important factor. Stones appear more often at those people who use the products capable it is essential to increase acidity of urine. For this reason the diet at an urolithiasis switches off salty, acid and too hot dishes. One more important point – water which is systematically used by the person. If it too rigid and in its structure is more amount of salts, then the probability of emergence of stones increases. More often stones are found in people who constantly live in very hot climate. But also the lack of influence of ultraviolet rays can provoke an urolithiasis. In the course of carrying out diagnosis the doctor not only appoints necessary methods of research, but also finds out what could provoke the beginning of a disease. Both medicamentous, and national treatment needs to be carried out taking into account these reasons.
In most cases the nephrolithiasis is shown by signs which the person cannot but notice. But sometimes the disease proceeds is latent, and it is possible to reveal stones in kidneys only accidentally when diagnosis and treatment of other diseases is carried out.
The main symptoms of an urolithiasis are a manifestation of painful feelings in a waist. Pain as on the one hand, and from both can disturb the person. Pain is stupid, but exhausting, they amplify at an exercise stress or while the patient tries to change position of a body. If the stone from a kidney appears in an ureter, then pain becomes more intensive and covers a stomach bottom, smelled, generative organs. Sometimes it gives to a leg. Very strong painful attack often comes to the end with an otkhozhdeniye of stones with urine.
Patients with an urolithiasis periodically suffer from renal colic. This state at which in a waist incredibly severe pain develops. Colic can last even several days, at the same time pain abates a little, again renews with a new force. The attack stops when the stone changes situation or leaves in a bladder.
In the presence of stones in kidneys of people can feel an urodynia, besides the urination happens too frequent. In this case it is possible to assume that stones are in an ureter or a bladder. In the course of an urination the stream of urine is sometimes rummaged, and at the same time the patient does not feel full bladder emptying. Doctors define such symptom as a syndrome of "mortgaging". If the person changes position of a body, then the urination proceeds.
After a painful attack or exercise stresses in urine of the patient blood can be found. Also urine opacification, periodically arising high arterial pressure is characteristic of an urolithiasis. If pyelonephritis joins a disease, then the body temperature of the patient can increase up to 38-40 degrees.
Sometimes stones or sand are present at kidneys at the person throughout all life, and no symptoms at the same time are shown. Therefore, the patient can even not know about the illness. In general symptoms directly depend on what size and type of a stone at the patient, where exactly the stone is bred and what are observed disturbances in work of urinogenital system. Treatment of sand in kidneys and stones in bodies of urinogenital system is also carried out taking into account these factors.
Thus, the main objective symptom of an urolithiasis are stones in kidneys. Symptoms of stones in kidneys are, first of all, urine opacification, existence in it of a deposit, character change (dark and dense urine appears at the beginning of process of an urination).
What stones were formed at the person in kidneys, can define additional research. They can have different structure. Allocate phosphatic, calcic and oxalic stones in kidneys. But nevertheless diagnosis demonstrates that most often in kidneys of patients the stones having the mixed type are formed.
Removing calculus from kidneys – a main issue of treatment. But initially the doctor has to define all features of a disease and only then make the decision what to do. It is important to consider that in the onset of the illness stones can not prove at all. In this case it is about a so-called kamnenositelstvo. But also it is in that case important to reveal a disease and to define how to remove stones as at any time they can provoke renal colic. The reasons which influence manifestation of symptoms are various: it both a severe stress, and the broken diet, and intensive exercise stresses. By the way, in most cases renal colic is caused by small stones. But existence in kidneys of big stones which photo especially impresses is not less dangerous as it is a direct way to development of a renal failure and death of a kidney. Therefore extremely important point is carrying out high-quality diagnosis with all researches from where the doctor can learn about features of course of an illness, and the subsequent treatment. The special attention is deserved also by prevention of an illness at those who are inclined to formation of stones.
There is a number of diagnostic methods by means of which diseases of an urinary system come to light specialists at early stages. But here also consciousness of patients is important. Each person, at manifestation of the first symptoms of pathologies of urinogenital system has to see a doctor as independently he will not be able to understand whether it does not have him in kidneys, an ureter or in a bladder of stones.
After poll of the patient the doctor-urologist appoints to it necessary inspection. First of all, the laboratory analysis of urine allowing to define existence of microbic infection, availability of blood in urine, and also to learn about character of salt impurity is carried out. By means of the general blood test inflammatory processes come to light. Besides, biochemical analysis of blood is carried out. One of the most important researches at suspicion on existence of stones in kidneys is ultrasonic research of kidneys. However in certain cases ultrasonography nevertheless does not give the chance to define existence of stones in an ureter as they can deeply be behind a peritoneum.
For the purpose of detection of stones to the patient the excretory urography is often appointed. For this purpose enter a contrast agent then x-ray films become into a vein. Studying of a survey general picture of uric system gives the chance to the doctor to reveal, stones are located where exactly, to learn what form at them and the size. But at the same time the specialist considers that some stones are capable to pass X-ray. As a result, in their pictures it is not visible.
One more method of research — a radio isotope nefrostsintigrafiya. Procedure begins with introduction to a vein of special radiopharmaceutical. It collects in kidneys and then is removed through them. At this time kidneys are scanned that allows to define disturbance of their functions. Research is informative for the specialist.
If treatment of an urolithiasis was not carried out timely, then as complications pyelonephritis, both acute, and chronic can soon develop. If the patient does not ask for the help, then as a result perhaps purulent fusion of a kidney. In that case the patient loses a kidney.
If stones are in a bladder, then the person can suffer from constants and very painful bad attacks of cystitis. Also complications of a nephrolithiasis it becomes frequent an urethritis, a chronic renal failure.
Nephrolithiasis of kidneys it is necessary to treat in several stages. At patients with an acute pain it is necessary to remove an attack of acute colic, first of all. Further treatment includes removal of a stone, therapy of infectious process and prevention of development of stones in the future.
Treatment of stones in kidneys is carried out conservative and operational by methods. The conservative method of therapy includes drug treatment, and also a rigid diet and a certain drinking mode. However therapy by tablets, and also some folk remedies can be effective if the patient in kidneys has only very small stones or sand. Drugs which are appointed by the doctor in such cases promote dissolution of nephroliths and sand. However it is impossible to use such drugs without control of the specialist at all. He has to make the decision on how to treat an urolithiasis and how to dissolve stones. Practicing national treatment, the patient also has to consult to the doctor as any national medicine can negatively affect a state of health of the patient previously.
If in the presence of stones in kidneys at the person inflammatory process began, then antibacterial treatment is surely carried out. After that the doctor makes the decision how to remove stones.
Crushing of stones by means of the laser practices in modern medicine. Treatment by the laser assumes a combination of endoscopy and use directly of the laser.
The endoscope is entered into the urethral canal then the laser nozzle carries out crushing. The method is not painful and sometimes allows to remove stones for only one procedure. Besides with its help it is possible to get rid of stones of a different form and the size.
Crushing of stones in kidneys is also carried out with use of opportunities of ultrasound. In this case the shock and wave principle of crushing is applied that is provided with the special device. Crushing by ultrasound allows to remove stones which diameter does not exceed 2 cm. To the patient anesthesia is carried out, and stones are split up to such an extent that they could pass without difficulties on an ureter. When crushing big stones several such procedures are required. In general the ultrasound does not exert a negative impact on an organism.
If at the person stones of the big size are revealed and there are certain complications, then operational treatment by carrying out band operation practices. It is the most traumatic method.
It is very important to patients for whom the urolithiasis is diagnosed to adhere to a special diet constantly. The food allowance of the patient is developed depending on what structure stones and what reasons provoked development of an urolithiasis have. Food is organized so that in a diet there was a minimum of products which promote education and growth of stones.
If the phosphatic urolithiasis is diagnosed for the person, then alkali reaction of urine is noted. Therefore, it needs to be acidified. Such patients are not recommended to use many vegetables and fruit, it is impossible to include dairy products in a diet. Meat, fish, vegetable oil, flour is recommended. It is necessary to drink a little less, than at detection of oxalic and uratny stones.
If carbonate stones are found, then it is important to patient to limit the use of products which are rich in calcium. Acidity of urine is increased, using fish, meat, eggs, oil, flour.
In the presence of uratny stones it is necessary to use as little as possible products, provoking formation of uric acid. These are kidneys, a liver, beef-infusion broths. Also fish, meat, vegetable fats is limited. Such patients need to drink fresh juice from a lemon, and here juice of grapefruit is not recommended.
At identification of oxalic stones it is necessary to clean those products in which there are an oxalic acid and calcium from a diet. It is a sorrel, potatoes, spinach, oranges, dairy products.
There is also a number of the general recommendations for patients with an urolithiasis. Every day it is necessary to drink not less than two liters of liquid, and in a hot season it is necessary to use so much liquid never to test thirst. Positively the organism is influenced by reception of infusions and broths of diuretic herbs. It is important to limit acid, spicy, salty food and not to allow an overeating. You should not take alcoholic beverages. Also doctors recommend to patients with message stones active life, but at the same time to avoid heavy loadings. It is impossible to allow severe stresses, to overcool.
If renal colic began at the person suddenly, then the heat bath or a hot-water bottle which needs to be put on area of a waist can facilitate a painful attack.
As measures of prevention of an urolithiasis it is necessary to balance a food allowance to make it the healthiest. It is necessary to drink not less than two liters of liquid a day and not to allow overcooling of a zone of a waist at all. It is worth taking care of getting rid of excess weight also. If the person feels that in a waist unpleasant feelings or pain appeared, then on a visit to the urologist it is impossible to tighten at all.