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January 22, 2012
Neurosises call group of diseases which arise at the person because of influence of injuries of mental character. As a rule, they are followed by deterioration in health of the person, differences in mood and manifestations of somato-vegetative manifestations.
Neurosis can be shown at each person, but nevertheless character of this disease, and also its form depend on many determinal factors. So, neurosis can be created owing to certain features of the identity of the person, hereditary factors defining resistance to stresses, adaptive opportunities.
Also developing of neurosis is influenced directly by type of a mental injury. The similar injury can be single-step (that is, for example, death of the loved one), acute or the unpleasant circumstances (the conflicts in private and professional life) existing a long time. But the main determinal factor is the emotional importance of a similar situation for the person: it has to be for it a certain vital value. Symptoms of neurosis are especially often shown at those who endured a significant mental injury in the childhood, at people who grew up in dysfunctional families, at those who are subject to somatopathies.
Types of neurosises
Neurosis is functional disorder of reversible character. This state disappears after a while independently or it can be cured completely by means of a certain therapy. In this condition of the patient understands that it has disorder of mental character, and is able to estimate the disease adequately.
In domestic psychiatry it is accepted to distinguish three main types of neurosises. It is a neurasthenia, neurosis of persuasive states, hysterical neurosis. If to consider types of neurosises according to the International classification, then in this case it is accepted to allocate a neurotic depression, fear neurosis, phobic and hypochiondrial neurosises and other states.
At a neurasthenia at the person the condition of irritable weakness is observed. High excitability and irritability is characteristic of this state, at the same time the person gets very quickly tired and exhausted.
Dominance of the expressed irritability is characteristic of the first stage of an illness. The person in this state very badly transfers exercise and emotional stresses, inadequately reacts to external irritants. Symptoms of neurosis of this form are shown also that the patient very badly perceives sharp sounds, bright light, the loud speech, fluctuations of temperature. At the person various vegetative reactions are often shown: strong heartbeat, cold in extremities, perspiration. The patient sleeps badly, hard falls asleep. At the same time very frequent symptoms of neurosis is the headache, feelings of noise or a pulsation in the head. These features stir the person of a message full cerebration. Irritability is replaced over time by very strong feeling of weakness and fatigue, a fast exhaustion. It is especially difficult for person to concentrate own attention in this state, he distracts from the main work all the time. In view of these features of the patient tests discontent, becomes sensitive and whining. Trying to force to carry out a certain action, the person constantly feels weakness, complains of feeling sick. As a rule, day of people, a sick neurasthenia, feels drowsiness, and at night it is overcome by sleeplessness. If as signs of a nervoz vegetative symptoms prevail, then often patients listen to work of own bodies, constantly being afraid of emergence of various diseases.
As a rule, an outcome at a neurasthenia favorable. Often treatment is promoted by permission of a situation which provoked an emotional pressure. Also good rest helps. However in some cases a neurasthenia it is necessary to treat with use of medicamentous therapy.
Symptoms of hysterical neurosis
This form of neurosis has polymorphic symptomatology which is shown by a number of somatic, neurologic and mental disorders. Emergence of all disturbances is directly connected with the high level of suggestion and auto-suggestion of the person. So symptoms of neurosis of this form of an illness can be similar to symptoms of other diseases. As a rule, displays of hysterical neurosis especially often arise at those who have hysterical character.
As symptoms of neurosis of this look it is necessary to allocate existence of convulsive hysterics at which a certain narrowing of consciousness is observed. As a rule, similar attacks are shown where there are people, and previously the patient chooses such place where he cannot put himself damage. During an attack the body of the patient can sometimes be curved by an arch, the movements become chaotic. If the attack begins at the person who stays in a lying state, then at it hands and legs can be extended, fingers are cramped by a spasm. Also attacks can be shown in the form of cordial, hypertensive crises, a shiver, asthma, the person can sob long time. Most often this state is shown at women. The person with symptoms of neurosis of a hysterical form tries to show illness symptoms to people around. Often they try to tell all, their illness is how heavy and awful. However they do not try to get rid of a disease, therefore, neurosis is for them "desirable". It is a peculiar defense reaction of an organism.
Hysterical frustration happen both long, and short, often there are exacerbations of a disease.
Symptoms of neurosis of persuasive states
Neurosis of persuasive states is a disease of which emergence of obsessions and thoughts is characteristic. The person is overcome by fears of which he cannot get rid. In a similar state often at the patient phobias are shown (this form of neurosis is called still phobic neurosis). The mental injury, reaction to which initially is emergence of alarm, and also unpleasant feelings in a stomach, heart, is an origin of neurosis of persuasive states.
Symptoms of neurosis of this form are shown as follows: the person feels fear which is shown at repeated unpleasant incidents. For example, if the patient faints on the street, then in the same place the following time will pursue it persuasive fear. Over time the person has a fear of death, incurable diseases, dangerous infections. Therefore, he tries to secure himself, for example, many times mine hands, disinfecting clothes, avoiding public institutions.
Sometimes also other fears – fear of height, the closed and open spaces, fear of sharp objects and other persuasive fears form. Also also neurosis of persuasive movements is noted. These are the continuous persuasive movements of the head, hands. The patient can blink, twitch. At neurosis of persuasive movements patients can try to constrain such movements, but in view of need strongly for this purpose to strain, for the long period they cannot make it. Neurosis of persuasive states proceeds much longer time, than other types of neurosises.
Symptoms of depressive neurosis
At this type of neurosis at the person the arising depression of which the reduced mood and somatic disturbances is characteristic is observed psikhogenno (generally it is vegeto-vascular dystonia). This form of neurosis is, as a rule, shown at people rectilinear and uncompromising.
At depressive neurosis at the person the constant depressive mood, tearfulness, slackness and weakness is observed in the mornings. However in relation to the future sick have no pessimism manifestations. In this case the patient and in the suppressed mood actively works and shows an initiative.
Symptoms of hypochiondrial neurosis
This morbid condition is characterized by too overestimated attention to own health. The person is convinced that he has a serious illness which is incurable. This form of neurosis can be following from other forms of neurosis. The person gradually has thoughts of existence of a certain illness. It goes in cycles in it. Doctors do not find confirmations of existence of a disease during researches, but the patient addresses for further consultations. As a result of thought of an illness become persuasive, and visit of doctors – the main business in human life.
Heart neurosis, stomach neurosis
Neurosis of heart is a state of which disturbance of cardiovascular activity is characteristic. As a rule, the long mental tension, existence of mental injuries, intoxications (abuse of tobacco, alcohol, coffee) becomes the reasons of display of neurosis of heart. Neurosis of heart is a complex expression of a psychoneurosis, disturbances of vegetative and endocrine character. Sometimes the only symptom of neurosis of heart is emergence of pain in heart. At the same time pain can be different intensity. Often at the patient the feeling of compression of heart is shown. Tachycardia, interruptions, arrhythmia, bradycardia, an ekstrasistoliya can be shown. Bradycardia quite often is followed by long pain in heart, the general breakdown and hypotension. At neurosis of heart of pathological changes in heart it is not observed.
To define how to treat neurosis of this type, the specialist conducts researches and, as a rule, appoints the complex therapy directed to strengthening and adjustment of work of a nervous system.
In certain cases neurosises of other internals can be observed. So, neurosis of a stomach is provoked by stressful situations, tension of intellectual character, organism intoxication, irrational food. Neurosis of a stomach is directly connected with exhaustion of a vegetative nervous system. At stomach neurosis at the patient stomach spasms, perspiration, irritability, hypotonia and other symptoms are observed. This illness quite often occurs at the people occupied with heavy brainwork. The disease, as a rule, will respond to treatment by means of phytotherapy.
Neurosises at children
Rather often today neurosises at children are shown. In that case there is a disturbance of attitude and behavior, at the same time organic changes of a nervous system are absent. Neurosises at children, as well as at adult age, as a rule, arise owing to a mental injury. The experiences connected with such injury are reflected in fears of the child, his features of behavior, in dreams. Very often neurosis at children recovers independently in view of smoothing of a mental injury. But if the situation which plunged for itself a mental injury, repeats, neurosis at children can pass into a chronic form.
The main symptoms of neurosis at the child is loss of appetite, sleep disorders and decrease in mood. Asthenic neurosis at children is often shown after infectious diseases. Often occurs at children of school age who have excessive intellectual loadings and suffer from overfatigue.
Hysterical neurosis – result of an acute mental injury at the child. At the same time the child can lose coordination of movements, he reduces sensitivity. However such symptoms often happen demonstrative. Often this form of neurosis is shown at early age.
Neurosis of persuasive states — result of chronic injuries of mentality. It is shown at hypochondriac and uncertain children. Symptoms of this state are persuasive experiences of which the child to aim to get rid independently.
Treatment of neurosises
At treatment of neurosises it is very important to approach purpose of therapy in a complex. Besides treatment of neurosises without fail has to be individual. First of all, the specialist carries out the analysis of those psychological injuries which became the reasons of development of neurosis, and tries to relieve of them the patient.
In treatment of neurosises different methods of modern psychotherapy have huge value. So, before decision-making how to treat neurosis in each case, the doctor studies a situation in detail. Further he uses explanatory practice, applies at persuasive conditions of hypnosis, autogenic training, other progressive methods.
If the specialist considers as a neurosis origin at the patient the general overfatigue, then treatment will be directionally on recovery of power opportunities of a nervous system. In this case medicines which improve blood supply and exchange processes in a brain will be effective. Also sick reception of vitamins is appointed. Also the healthy sleep which positively influences functioning of a nervous system is not less important.
If treatment of those neurosises which reason existence of the notions of compulsion and experiences is is carried out, then in this case are often applied technology of relaxation. Thanks to training of the patient in them it can independently eliminate the alarm.
Important component of complex treatment of neurosises use of fortifying therapy. In this case to the patient vitamin complexes, nootropic drugs, physioprocedures, acupuncture are appointed. Also tranquilizers among which drugs with somnolent influence are preferable are appointed often sick. In more exceptional cases small doses of drugs-antidepressants, neuroleptics are applied.
It is important to consider that use of tranquilizers throughout a long time can become the reason of manifestation of dependence to drugs, deteriorations in attention and memory. Reception of tranquilizers eliminates only symptoms, but not the reason of neurosis.
The specialist defines approach to treatment, being guided by character of neurosis and considering characterologic features. In the course of carrying out psychotherapy it is important to consider possibilities of the patient.
Prevention of neurosises
As measures of prevention of neurosises the most important point is the prevention of the psychoinjuring influences. The confidence in tomorrow, respect of his personality, accommodation in normal conditions is important for the person. At observance of all these conditions developing of neurosises is minimized. It is important to avoid infection with infections, acute and chronic intoxications, brain injuries, to provide a full-fledged dream and rest.
Section: Mental, depressive disorders