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Anesthesia and anesthesia in stomatology
Pain which is shown during dental care is the factor which is often becoming decisive for the person making the decision on whether it is worth making visit to the stomatologist. For this reason the question of anesthesia in stomatology is constantly studied by physicians and is very important. Modern doctors have many means and methods to provide high-quality and effective anesthesia. Stomatology without pain — that ideal at which doctors aim.
Features of anesthesia
Anesthesia in stomatology is always carried out taking into account specific features of the patient, a problem which needs to be eliminated of degree of manifestation of pain, etc. It is important to know that all practiced anesthesia methods in stomatology assume fast recovery of the patient after an anesthesia. After a while (about half an hour) it can even already conduct the car.
As such anesthesia which is capable to reduce pain to the necessary minimum practices in surgical stomatology, and therapeutic stomatology. Initially the doctor analyzes all problems of the patient and chooses those types of anesthesia which approach in this case optimum.
Adequate anesthesia in stomatology assumes elimination of pain to a minimum. However most of stomatologists hold the opinion what to anesthetize to such an extent that the patient during treatment was unconscious, there is no need. Moreover, it is very important that during rendering stomatologic services the doctor could communicate with the patient.
On the other hand, severe pain can become the reason of a shocklike condition of a human body. Therefore severe pain during dental care, undoubtedly, does to the person harm. Thus, the main objective of the doctor who makes anesthesia before dental care — to make it so that removal of pain was the most effective and did not constitute danger to the person.
Modern doctors practice different types of anesthesia in stomatology. Anesthesia is subdivided into the general, local and combined. Local anesthesia assumes anesthesia only of the specific place in which manipulations will be carried out. The small area in which by means of introduction of medicines sensitivity of nerve terminations cleans up is defined. The local anesthesia, in turn, is subdivided into several types. Application anesthesia (other name — superficial anesthesia) is applied in need of a surface anesthesia. It will be out without use of the syringe. The doctor applies drug-anesthetic on that area which demands anesthesia, using at the same time the applicator. Sometimes in that case the aerosol is also used. In this case only a few millimeters of fabric are anesthetized. Such anesthesia in stomatology is applied only at easy interventions, often practices in children's stomatology.
The infiltration anesthesia is an anesthesia at which the corresponding drugs are administered with use of the syringe. At the same time soft tissues become impregnated with anesthetic. This type of anesthesia practices modern stomatologists very often as procedure is well transferred by patients and at the same time allows to relieve the person of pain effectively.
Conduction anesthesia in stomatology gives the chance to the doctor to relieve the patient of pain on rather big site. For example, in such a way it is possible to anesthetize a half of a jaw. This way optimum approaches at serious operations, and also practices if after treatment there were complications which demand urgent intervention. This procedure is distinguished by more difficult technique of execution.
Doctors practice all described methods taking into account specific features of the patient, a disease, etc. So, at pregnancy at the woman the stomatologist always applies the most sparing way of a local anesthesia.
At the same time a lack of a local anesthesia is, first of all, that sensitivity of nerve terminations disappears only for rather small span. As a result, this method can be applied if the doctor carries out treatment of one tooth. But at damage of several teeth and, respectively, need to treat them it is necessary to practice other methods at once.
As side effects of such method a cardiopalmus is sometimes shown or fluctuations of arterial pressure are observed. It occurs under the influence of the adrenaline which is a part of anesthetics for the purpose of vasoconstriction.
If it is necessary to relieve completely of painful sensitivity all organism, then carrying out the general anesthesia practices. Doctors apply an anesthesia in stomatology much more less than local anesthesia. The matter is that the stomatology under the general anesthesia has many contraindications. Besides at the person at whose treatment the general anesthesia was used by-effects which proceed several days after procedure can be observed later. Responses demonstrate that after an anesthesia the patient can note very frequent breath, the broken respiratory rhythm, a bronchospasm, changes of a physical activity, a derganiye of muscles. Besides, as by-effects which are provoked by stomatology under anesthetic psychomotor excitement can develop, raise arterial pressure, and in especially hard cases partial loss of memory is noted. For this reason the general anesthesia in children's stomatology is used seldom.
As advantages of the general anesthesia providing absolute rest and lack of shocks for the patient is allocated, an opportunity to the doctor for one session to execute a large number of different procedures. At use of the general anesthesia for the patient smaller salivation therefore quality of treatment when sealing teeth increases is observed much more. At the general anesthesia lower risk of development of inflammatory processes after an exodontia is noted.
The doctor surely selects an anesthesia for teeth taking into account not only a physical, but also emotional condition of the patient. It is sometimes reasonable to treat teeth under the general anesthesia if the person shows tension pronounced emotionally and strong uneasiness before procedure. Therefore dental care under the general anesthesia is appointed to those people who show signs of panic fear in relation to everything that is connected with stomatology. Especially often in that case the exodontia under the general anesthesia practices. Besides, use of the general anesthesia is reasonable when carrying out prosthetics, at very difficult damages of teeth, at some chronic associated diseases.
In other cases, as a rule, the doctor does not see need to treat teeth under anesthetic this type.
In the presence at the person of serious diseases of cardiovascular system before an initiation of treatment under the general anesthesia it needs to pass initially all necessary inspections, and in the course of dental care only the experienced anesthesiologist has to watch a condition of such patient. When using in process treatment of the general anesthesia near the doctor there has to be all necessary equipment which use can be necessary at emergency situation.
The combined anesthesia assumes a combination of incomplete general anesthesia and very effective local anesthesia. At the same time the local anesthesia is made after previously the patient received pharmacological drugs for relaxation and calm. At the same time the patient remains in full consciousness. Such tooth anesthesia is much safer, than use of the general anesthesia, and in hard cases can be used even at pregnancy or at serious diseases. Respectively, the serious consequences described above at the combined anesthesia are absent.
Anesthesia at pregnancy
In modern stomatology anesthesia can not be applied to teeth in general only in that a case if laser treatment practices. In this case when processing tooth the patient does not feel special discomfort therefore anesthesia at dental care by this method is not necessary. For this reason doctors advise such method of treatment to practice during pregnancy.
However, stomatologists strongly recommend pregnant women to visit the stomatologist and if only traditional treatment is possible. Local anesthetics which are applied in modern stomatology do not exert a negative impact on future mother and on not born child. The most important — the doctor has to know about pregnancy of the woman before an initiation of treatment and select drug for anesthesia taking into account this important point. Most often as such drug it is used ultrakain which is completely safe and at the same time has the expressed effect. Drug is rather quickly removed from a human body and practically does not get to a fruit through a placenta. Therefore it is applied both when sealing, and at an odontectomy at pregnant women. Use of other drugs, but only under accurate control of the doctor and taking into account specific features of an organism of the woman also practices in an individual order.
And surely in detail told the most important that the pregnant woman at the first need visited the stomatologist to the doctor before treatment about all features of its state.