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The onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails at the person. It is one of the most eurysynusic diseases of the sphere of dermatology. According to researches, has this illness from ten to fifteen percent of all population. The onychomycosis is the center of a fungal infection which exists throughout a long time. The infection gradually extends on an organism therefore in the course of treatment it is very important to get rid of the activator completely.
Emergence of an onychomycosis mushrooms provoke dermatophytes, trikhofitona, drozhzhepodobny, mold mushrooms, etc. It is possible to catch this infection in the course of use of various household objects, footwear, manicure accessories, at visit to a bath, a sauna, a public shower. Recently considerably the quantity of cases of an illness among children and teenagers increased.
The disease of nails is provoked by also various defeats: injuries, fractures of bones of brushes and feet, a bad blood stream in extremities, a varicosis, etc. Most often the illness is shown at people who have somatic and endocrine illnesses, a diabetes mellitus, have disturbances in work of immune system, accepted corticosteroid hormones or took a course of therapy by antibiotics. At an onychomycosis except change of nails there are allergic changes in an organism, besides mushrooms emit harmful toxins. The onychomycosis is shown differently, depending on a type of the activator. As a rule, the fungal infection affects nails on feet of legs, cases of damage of nails on brushes are more rare. Sometimes, that the infection is shown at the same time on nails of both brushes, and feet.
It is accepted to distinguish several forms of an onychomycosis, how the nail plate changes in the course of an illness. So, the normotrofichesky form of an illness is characterized by long preservation of a normal configuration of nails which underwent defeat. Dim color, a yellowish shade near distal edge, a plate in corners of nails thicker because of a hyponychial hyperkeratosis is characteristic of nails.
At an onychomycosis of a hypertrophic form the plate of a nail is thickened, gradually nails are deformed, on them cross lines appear. Color – dirty-gray. Sometimes the shape of nails gradually becomes coronoid. At an onychomycosis of an atrophic form a nail plate considerably collapse, there is a process of its deformation, the nail bed is bared. Color of nails serovyty or yellow, they are rather dim. Defeat as an onikholizis of a plate assumes thinning of nails, their separation from a nail bed. Nails do not shine, their color – gray or yellow. Normal coloring is present only at area of a matrix. Also the combined illness forms meet. At children nails are surprised with some features: their surface becomes rough, the plate of a nail is surprised at distal edge, a hyponychial hyperkeratosis – an unusual occurrence.
Symptoms of a disease differ depending on activator type. So, multiple damage of nails is characteristic of the onychomycosis provoked by T.rubrum. At first on plates of nails of feet maculas lutea and longitudinal strips appear. Nails of hands are also surprised horizontal strips, however their color lighter and dim. The onychomycosis caused by T.interdigitale differs in emergence of bright yellow spots or strips, the nail becomes thicker at free edge, its plate is deformed.
The infectious disease caused by drozhzhepodobny mushrooms of Candida assumes that the illness begins generally on fingers of brushes. Rollers of a nail become thicker, silvery scales are at the edges noticeable, in the course of a palpation of people feels pain, a little pus can be emitted. As a rule, plates of nails become relief, on them there are cross furrows, the plate of a nail can collapse in proximal area. The plate becomes thinner on side edges, its color – yellow. At an illness which was caused by mold mushrooms color of a plate of a nail changes taking into account a type of the activator: it can be blue, yellow, brown, green, black.
It is dependent on that, defeat is localized where exactly, distinguish an onychomycosis lateral, distal, distal and lateral, proximal, superficial, total. Lateral defeats can extend on edge of a plate to rather big area of a nail and even more deeply than a matrix.
Diagnosis of an onychomycosis
Acquaintance to clinical displays of an illness helps to establish the similar diagnosis. First of all the doctor, having found a mushroom, has to define its look by microscopic examination of material. Also the culture of a mushroom is allocated by means of crops on mediums. If researches are conducted by the experienced specialist, then by means of a microscope he will be able already to distinguish some types of a fungus. The onychomycosis needs to be differentiated with those changes which happen to nails at psoriasis, eczema, red flat herpes.
Treatment of an onychomycosis
That treatment of an onychomycosis of nails was the most effective, it is necessary to use complex therapy. As a rule, the patient appoints system antimycotics, drugs for external use which effect is directed to improvement of blood circulation and growth of nail plates. Today there are many drugs – antimycotics of systemic action. The specialist, being guided by features of a specific case, appoints such drugs to a certain period. Before beginning treatment process, it is necessary to make the general and biochemical blood tests surely.
The most known drugs of this type are Griseofulvin, Terbinafin (Lamizil), Itrakonazol (Orungal), Ketokonazol (Nizoral), Flukonazol (Diflucan). As outside means special antifungal solutions in the form of varnishes – batrafen, Lotseril, etc. are successfully applied. Before use of similar drugs it is necessary to clean an affected area of a nail plate. To define whether it was succeeded to cure completely an onychomycosis, it is necessary to define whether clinical displays of an illness disappeared, whether grew completely nails. It is also important that analyses on mushrooms three times in a row were negative. They are carried out directly after treatment, and later – two more times with an interval in two months. Patients after treatment of an onychomycosis of nails pass survey time in three months for a year.
As not less important stage of treatment of an illness consider epidemic measures. So, it is very important to disinfect the footwear which visited the use, to boil socks and stockings, to watch hygiene of nails on hands and legs.
Prevention of an onychomycosis
As preventive measures the sanitary and educational work directed to informing the population, dispensary control of patients for the purpose of detection of an illness and the prevention of its distribution among close people of the patient is applied. Careful prevention even of small injuries of foot, use of means which help to fight against perspiration, callosities, a xeroderma is important. All public institutions where the increased humidity is observed, should be visited only in rubber slippers.
After washing it is necessary to walk surely dry, socks need to be changed every day. It is impossible to go the tramp on the beach, mushrooms are stored in sand very long. It is not necessary to use someone else's footwear. If dystrophic changes of nails take place, then they should be treated immediately as such nails give in to attack of a disease much more often. Thus, it is possible to warn an onychomycosis only at accurate following to rules of hygiene.
Section: Infectious diseases