And whether you know...
November 9, 2012
The SARS (reduction from "acute respiratory viral infections") is the whole group of infectious diseases which proceed sharply. Also SARS in certain cases call ORZ (acute respiratory diseases). Their emergence is connected with impact on a RNA organism - and the DNA-containing viruses. They strike different departments of a respiratory path of the person, causing intoxication. Bacterial complications also often join such diseases.
Prevalence of a SARS
Doctors quite reasonably consider a SARS as the most widespread disease both at adults, and in the children's environment. If to compare number of the main infectious illnesses diagnosed in a year to quantity of cases of a SARS, then incidence of ORZ will be much higher. And in days of pandemics signs of ORZ are shown approximately at 30% of inhabitants of the globe. Depending on what virus became epidemic reason, the incidence at children can differ. But nevertheless doctors demonstrate that most often the illness affects children from 3 to 14 years. For this reason prevention of a SARS is so important in this age group.
Very often the acute respiratory disease proceeds with complications, and, besides, in the period of this illness perhaps serious exacerbation of chronic diseases which the person has. What is a SARS, can even learn by own experience of people several times a year. The last statement especially concerns children as earlier postponed ORZ do not leave durable long immunity.
If the illness develops at the child repeatedly, then it provokes decrease in protective forces of an organism, display of immunodeficiency, allergization. Besides, at the child the delay in physical and mental development can be shown. Frequent display of respiratory infections can become the reason interfering carrying out planned preventive inoculations at children.
How the SARS is transmitted?
Symptoms of a SARS are shown at the person under the influence of influenza viruses (types A, B, C), adenovirus, viruses of a parainfluenza, RSV, reo-and rhinoviruses. A source of an infection earlier sick person is. Generally the transmission of infection occurs in the airborne way, in more exceptional cases – contact and household. Most often entrance gate for an infection are upper respiratory tracts, less often the virus gets to an organism through a digestive tract and a conjunctiva of eyes.
The virus lives and breeds in a nasal cavity of the sick person. They are allocated in environment with a nasal secret of the diseased. Also viruses get to air when the patient coughs and sneezes. Getting to environment, viruses remain on different surfaces, on the patient's body, and also on objects of personal hygiene. Therefore, healthy people catch both during air inhalation, and at use of objects with a large number of viruses.
The highest level of contageousness is noted on the first week of an illness. It is important to note that seasonality is characteristic of this illness: symptoms of ORZ are generally shown during the cold period of year. The matter is that overcooling is one of factors promoting development of ORZ. Most often the illness affects people at whom reduced general immunity is noted. These are children and elderly people, and also patients for whom the immunodeficiency is diagnosed.
The SARS reasons at children
The SARS at the baby is shown seldom as the newborn baby has temporary immunity to viruses of respiratory type which he receives from mother. But already by then, as the child is six months old, such immunity becomes weaker and cannot protect the child any more. Therefore the SARS at children can develop about one year, at this time at the kid own immunity was not created yet. Symptoms of a disease are shown at the child and because at children's age there are no skills of personal hygiene. So, the kid does not wash a hand independently, does not cover a mouth and a nose at cough and sneezing. Therefore prevention of an illness has to be for parents a first-priority question as treatment of a SARS sometimes demands use of medicamentous means which can negatively be reflected afterwards in protective forces of an organism from children.
The SARS is shown by some symptoms known practically to each person. First of all, this febricula, an ache in a body, fervescence which is shown as defense reaction of an organism of the patient. In turn, most of people transfer sharp rise in temperature very badly.
One more symptom of an infection is cold at which of a nose very large amount of slime is allocated. Owing to mucifying from easy for the patient often suffers from cough. Besides, at a SARS there is a severe headache as a peculiar protection against the arisen organism intoxication. At this time there is brain vasoconstriction.
About weight of an illness it is possible to judge by expressiveness of displays of an illness, catarral manifestations and symptoms of intoxication.
But in general the dominating SARS symptoms directly depend on on what site of respiratory tracts the strongest inflammation provoked by a virus developed. So, at rhinitis there is a defeat mucous a nose; pharyngitis develops owing to an inflammation of a mucous membrane of a throat of the person; at a nasopharyngitis these parts of respiratory tracts are surprised at the same time; tonsillitis is shown at the person at inflammatory process of almonds; at laryngitis the throat is surprised; tracheitis – a consequence of inflammatory process in a trachea; at bronchitis inflammatory process is localized in bronchial tubes; at a bronchiolitis bronchioles – the smallest bronchial tubes are surprised.
However not each person accurately realizes a difference between cold and a SARS. Cold – result of activation of bacteria which reside in bronchial tubes, in a nose, in a drink of the person. Bacteria provoke development of cold when protective forces of an organism considerably weaken. At the same time the SARS develops as result of infection with a virus from the sick person.
Complications of a SARS
At development of an acute respiratory disease of complication can be shown on any term of an illness. Their emergence can be connected also with influence on an activator organism, and with the subsequent accession of bacterial microflora. Most often the SARS is complicated afterwards by pneumonia, bronchitis, a bronchiolitis. Also rather frequent complication are otitises, antritises, frontal sinusitis, sinusitis. Viral infections at children of early age can be complicated by rather serious disease — an acute stenosis of a throat (a so-called false croup). Diseases of neurologic character as complications arise at ORZ less often: these are meningoentsefalita, meningitis, neuritis. If severe fever and sharp intoxication of an organism takes place, development of all-brain reactions which proceed as convulsive and meningeal syndromes is possible. At heavy disease at the patient the hemorrhagic syndrome can be shown. Severe intoxication sometimes provokes disturbances in cardiac performance, and in certain cases – and development of myocarditis. At children in parallel with a SARS the cholangitis, an infection of urinary tract, a septicopyemia, pancreatitis, a mesadenitis can develop.
Diagnosis of a SARS
The doctor can diagnose a SARS, being guided by a clinical picture of an illness. At the same time it is surely considered, symptoms are how expressed and their dynamics is shown. Also the doctor has to study epidemiological data.
To confirm the diagnosis by laboratory researches, special express methods — the REEF and PTsR are applied. They give the chance to define availability of antigens of respiratory viruses in an epithelium of the nasal courses. Virologic and serological methods are also in certain cases appointed.
If at the patient bacterial complications developed, then direct him to consultation to other specialists – the pulmonologist, the otolaryngologist. At suspicion on pneumonia the X-ray analysis of lungs is carried out. If pathological changes from ENT organs take place, then to the patient carrying out a faringoskopiya, rinoskopiya, otoskopiya is appointed.
Treatment of a SARS
If the disease proceeds without complications, then treatment of a SARS is carried out in out-patient conditions. Only at a heavy current of ORZ and flu of patients hospitalize in a hospital. It is especially seriously necessary to approach therapy if the illness develops at pregnancy. Depending on that how serious condition at the patient and what character of the developed pathology the doctor defines, than to treat a SARS. Antiviral drugs, antibiotics are for this purpose used. But if the disease at adults proceeds rather easily, then also treatment of ORZ folk remedies in house conditions is possible. But anyway a final decision on how to treat a SARS, only the specialist as only he can really estimate has to accept, how hard or easily the illness proceeds.
While at the patient fever proceeds, he has to follow rules of a bed rest strictly. Before the first visit at manifestation of symptoms of a disease the patient applies methods of symptomatic basic treatment to the doctor. The correct drinking mode is important: it is necessary to drink not less than two liters of liquid a day. Through kidneys there is a removal of waste products of viruses which provoke intoxication symptoms. Besides liquid is removed from an organism of the patient in large numbers when he sweats. Weak tea, mineral water, fruit drinks is ideally suited for drink in days of an illness.
For elimination of symptoms of an illness use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs practices. Their choice now rather wide. To sick SARS they are appointed dl of decrease in temperature, removal of pain and reduction of inflammatory process. Paracetamol, analginum, an ibuprofen, Nimesulide is most often appointed. However it is necessary to consider that each organism can show individual sensitivity to a certain drug. And paracetamol is generally applied to treatment of children.
Doctors do not recommend to reduce at a SARS the body temperature which is not exceeding 38,5 degrees as at the increased temperature in an organism activity of a disease-producing factor is suppressed.
At manifestation of strong department of slime from a nose and its congestion antihistaminic medicines are used. If the patient is disturbed by a severe cough as an effect of emergence of a phlegm in respiratory tracts, then the means allowing to soften cough and to activate fluidifying and the subsequent department of a phlegm are in that case applied. Here it is important to provide the correct drinking mode, and also to moisten air indoors where the patient stays. It is possible to prepare tea on the basis of medicinal plants which are applied at cough. It is a linden, a mallow, coltsfoot, a licorice, a plantain, elder.
At cold in a nose it is necessary to dig in several times a day vasodilating drops. It is important to do it even if the patient feels a moderate congestion of a nose. Owing to hypostasis of fabrics outflow from adnexal bosoms of a nose is blocked. As a result there is a Wednesday suitable for the subsequent reproduction of microbes. But at the same time doctors do not advise to apply one vasodilator more than five days. That the effect of accustoming to drug was not shown, it needs to be replaced with other means on the basis of other active ingredient.
At pain in a throat it is necessary to rinse often it any disinfecting solution. For this purpose broth of a sage, a camomile, a calendula will approach. It is possible to prepare solution of Furacilin or to part in one glass of water on one teaspoon of soda and salt. It is necessary to rinse a throat at least, than once at two o'clock.
At treatment of a SARS at children gompeopatichesky means, antiviral drugs, interferona and imunostimulyator are applied. Important from the first hours of a course of a disease to provide the correct approach to therapy and it is obligatory to see a doctor as soon as possible.
Food at a SARS
About that, plentiful drink at a SARS is how important, the speech already went in sections above. Best of all at a SARS regularly to take the warm, a little acidified drinks. For improvement of process of an otkhozhdeniye of a phlegm it is possible to drink milk with mineral water.
In days of a disease specialists recommend to use easy dishes – for example, warm vegetable broth or soup. In the first day of a disease it is the best of all to be limited to yogurt or the apples baked in an oven as plentiful acceptance of food can worsen a condition of the patient. Besides in the period of the greatest intensity of symptoms of a SARS, as a rule, does not getting hungry. But in 2-3 days appetite at the patient increases. Nevertheless he should not abuse heavy food. It is the best of all to be limited to dishes which are rich with protein. Protein effectively recovers cells which were damaged by a virus. The baked fish, meat, fermented milk products will approach. As option, also buckwheat cereal with vegetables is useful.
It is especially important to eat fully at a SARS that who accepts antibiotics. Even if the person feels very badly, food has to be regular. Antibiotics accept strictly to or after the use of food. The food considerably softens impact of antibiotics on a digestive tract. It is desirable also in parallel with a course of treatment antibiotics to practice the use of fermented milk products from bifidokultura. Bifidoprodukta can effectively recover intestinal microflora which balance is broken by such drugs. And even after the end of treatment it is worth using about three weeks such products.
Pregnancy and SARS
Till today there are no accurate data on whether causes the infection of a fruit and the subsequent its defects of a SARS transferred mother. Therefore after the postponed illness on early terms advise the pregnant woman to make control ultrasonography or prenatal screening.
If by a SARS at pregnancy nevertheless it was shown, then the woman should not panic at all. It is necessary to call at once the doctor, without practicing independent ways of therapy. It is important to consider that the SARS during pregnancy proceeds with heavier symptoms as in the woman's organism during incubation of the child there are serious physiological changes, and protective properties of an organism worsen.
In development of an illness the blood flow to a placenta and a fruit strongly decreases. As a result, there is a threat of a hypoxia. However timely treatment allows not to allow so serious condition. It is important to avoid the complications of an illness which are shown in the form of pneumonia and bronchitis.
At pregnancy it is impossible to practice therapy by many drugs. Antibiotics are appointed to the woman only if the illness proceeds especially hard. At purpose of a certain drug to the pregnant woman the doctor surely estimates all risks, duration of gestation, probability of effect of drug on development of the kid. Also if necessary the woman accepts symptomatic drugs, vitamins, homeopathic remedies. Also the physical therapy, steam inhalations practices.
It is very important that each pregnant woman and her environment took all measures not to allow a SARS disease. This healthy nutrition, protection against contacts with sick people, plentiful drink, observance of all sanitary standards in the period of epidemic.
Prevention of a SARS
Till today there are no really effective measures of specific prevention. Strict following to the sanitary and hygienic mode in epidemic center is recommended. It is regular wet cleaning and airing of rooms, careful washing of ware and personal hygiene means of patients, carrying wadded gauze bandages, frequent washing of hands, etc. It is important to increase resistance of children to a virus by means of a hardening, reception of immunomodulators. Also vaccination against flu is considered method of prevention.
In the period of epidemic it is worth avoiding places of accumulation of people, to walk in the fresh air more often, to accept polyvitaminic complexes or drugs of ascorbic acid. It is recommended in house conditions every day to eat onions and garlic.
Section: Diseases of a respiratory organs
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