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November 24, 2012
Osteochondrosis is a disease at which there are degenerative and dystrophic processes in backbone tissues. Defeat of intervertebral disks, joint surfaces which to them prilezhat, bodies of vertebrae, the copular device develops. As a rule, initially at osteochondrosis there are pathological changes in bones and sheaves. And, guesses an onset of the illness of people only when begins to suffer from complications of such state – a dorsodynia, the broken sensitivity, atrophies of muscles, disturbances of functions of internals.
This illness is eurysynusic among modern people: according to different data, about 90% of a world's population have osteochondrosis. Generally the illness affects people who already were 30 years old. Today most often lumbar osteochondrosis comes to light (approximately in half of cases).
The disease develops at the person step by step. At the first stage of progressing of an illness process of dehydration of a pulpozny kernel begins. As a result, height of decrease in a disk decreases, and in a fibrous ring cracks are formed. However outside an intervertebral disk pathological changes do not happen.
At the second stage rapprochement of two next vertebrae as a result of lowering of height of standing of a disk, a point of an attachment of muscles and sheaves is observed. Because of sagging of sheaves and muscles excess mobility of vertebrae is shown that provokes development of instability of a pozvonkovo-motive segment. During this period vertebrae can slide off or be displaced, at the same time the spondylolisthesis forms.
The expressed morphological changes in intervertebral disks are characteristic of the third stage of development of osteochondrosis. There is forming of prolapses and a protrusion of disks, incomplete dislocations in intervertebral joints and unko-vertebralny joints develop.
At approach of the fourth stage adaptive changes in the affected vertebras are observed. In this case the human body adapts to too strong mobility of vertebrae, overcoming it. Owing to an immobilization of a backbone osteophytes — regional bone growths on adjacent surfaces of bodies of vertebrae appear. The osteophyte can injure a nervous root. Gradually there are fibrous changes in intervertebral disks and joints. As a result, a peculiar armor on a pozvonkovo-motive segment is formed, and manifestations gradually disappear.
Specialists state different assumptions concerning the reasons which promote development of osteochondrosis. Such reasons call mechanical spine injuries, disturbances in exchange processes of an organism, the favor to a disease having hereditary character. But it is difficult to define the accurate reason of development of a disease in view of prevalence of an illness. It often occurs at young people and at elderly people; at physically strong and at poorly trained.
Sometimes it is possible to hear opinion that symptoms of osteochondrosis arise owing to adjournment of salts in a backbone of the person. Patients often speak about adjournment of salts if they hear a scratch and a pokhrustyvaniye in joints. Actually the illness develops owing to disturbance of food of fabrics. Thereof their structure gradually regenerates. In tissues of a bone and cartilage constantly there is an updating process. If the person has regular adequate exercise stresses, then fabric becomes more elastic. But at people who lead generally a sedentary life such fabric is less strong.
Besides, the excess weight, disturbance of a bearing, negative ecological conditions, features of position of a body in operating time, unevenly developed musculoskeletal system, pregnancy, stresses, overcooling, infections can be the cause of development of osteochondrosis.
Thus, a range of the factors provoking a course of a disease, very wide. Not the last role in this process is played by features of a blood-groove and food of a cartilaginous and bone tissue. In vertebral disks of adults there are no vessels therefore both oxygen, and all necessary nutrients receive disks from the next fabrics. Therefore, it is necessary for normal food of disks of a backbone that in surrounding fabrics blood circulation constantly became more active. It is possible to accelerate this process, ensuring an active muscle work.
Displays of a disease can be various and directly depend on at what stage of development the illness stays. The most expressed symptoms of an illness are shown at distribution of pathological process on back department of a fibrous ring and a back longitudinal sheaf. In the course of activation of pathological process at the patient reflex and compression neurologic syndromes develop.
Osteochondrosis can be shown on the most different body parts therefore illness symptomatology very wide. The patient with osteochondrosis can have an extremity pain or their numbness, pain in a breast, disturbances of functions of generative organs, a headache sometimes disturbs. At the same time the person does not even guess that the reason of such manifestations – osteochondrosis.
If at the patient osteochondrosis of chest department of a backbone develops, then symptoms can remind displays of heart troubles: stenocardias, myocardial infarction. For this reason wrong treatment sometimes practices that leads to further progressing of osteochondrosis. Therefore, at suspicion on development of this disease of people has to see at once a doctor and pass necessary researches.
Osteochondrosis first of all is shown by pain and a strong sensation of discomfort in a back. In certain cases pain arises periodically, changeably. For some time it can disappear. But for each person developing of pain has to be very alarming symptom and a reason for concern. It is important to think and define what became the pain reason. For example, it could be the strong exercise stress, rise in weight, etc.
The following indicative symptom which shows osteochondrosis of cervical department of a backbone numbness of hands and legs, and also pain in them is considered. Similar symptoms are characteristic also of other types of osteochondrosis. Most often pain develops in the left leg or a hand, sometimes gives to heart, for edges. In case of manifestation of such symptoms it is not necessary at once to hurry to drink drugs for heart or other diseases, and it is necessary to listen and estimate attentively character of pain, its change depending on what is done by the person at present. All the supervision should be retold in detail to the doctor then to the patient massage is appointed, gymnastics, other methods of treatment practice. The address to the specialist at early stages of an illness will allow to provide its more effective treatment.
So, most often patients for whom osteochondrosis is diagnosed, complain of a sensation of discomfort in a backbone in different places, on pain of different intensity and character. They observe higher level of fatigue which is shown both at physical, and at mental work. Sensitivity in different areas of a body, most often in extremities can be broken. Also patients can note cold in hands and legs. Dizziness and a headache happens display of osteochondrosis of cervical department often. Visual acuity can also decrease considerably.
If at the patient osteochondrosis of lumbar department of a backbone takes place, then in this case the most different frustration of reproductive system of the person can be shown. After treatment of osteochondrosis of lumbosacral department of the man often note improvement of a potentiality. At the same time, if osteochondrosis of sacral department of a backbone develops at the woman, then it can complicate conception process, and also pregnancy incubation. Except the specified symptoms, at osteochondrosis also other manifestations are possible: spasms of muscles, difficulties in the movements, the shooting pains, etc.
Diagnosis of osteochondrosis
The most important point in the course of diagnosis of osteochondrosis is collecting the anamnesis, and, poll of the patient who has to state to the doctor all complaints in detail becomes the major moment in this process. If some symptoms of a disease are defined characteristic manifestations at osteochondrosis, then there are also many signs which are important for differentiating from displays of other diseases. The disturbances of functions of many bodies which are shown at osteochondrosis are often similar to symptoms of gastritis, stenocardia, stomach ulcer. For this reason each symptom at osteochondrosis is exposed to detailed studying and the analysis.
During diagnosis the doctor considers age of the patient, development of symptomatology. To specify the diagnosis, additional methods are applied to research. Most often in this case research practices radiological. For definition of a condition of the patient the survey X-ray analysis of a backbone is carried out. If more specific complaints take place, the aim X-ray analysis directed to the place of defeat practices.
The miyelografiya is considered rather difficult diagnostic method. This inspection provides introduction to the spinal channel of contrast liquid. In this case there is a risk of injury of a spinal cord, and also emergence of allergic reaction. But at the same time this method is considered informative to define existence of back hernia if necessary.
Besides, use of a computer tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance practices. However they rather expensive therefore practice mainly if necessary to carry out differential diagnosis and also to define existence of a tumor of a backbone.
Treatment of osteochondrosis
That treatment of osteochondrosis of a backbone conceived effect, it is necessary to provide not only exact diagnosis, but also an integrated approach to a problem. The doctor, as a rule, appoints treatment methods depending on what department of a backbone was struck. The main ways of therapy of cervical department, and also chest department and lumbar department of a backbone are massage, manual therapy, acupuncture, electrostimulation, remedial gymnastics, vacuum therapy, extension, and also other methods. Also parallel treatment by folk remedies can practice.
The doctor appoints treatment so that to provide elimination of the symptoms disturbing the patient, and also the reason which causes backbone pathology. To stop pain by use of methods of physical therapy, medicines. Also special exercises at backbone osteochondrosis practice.
One of the main methods of treatment of osteochondrosis of a backbone and other diseases of a musculoskeletal system is use of physiotherapy exercises. The special equipment for rehabilitation is for this purpose applied. By means of regular performance of the exercises which are individually picked up by the specialist it is possible to improve blood circulation, to activate a metabolism. As a result, food of intervertebral disks improves, and load of a backbone decreases.
The method of physical therapy assumes impact on an organism of various physical factors. By means of current of low frequency, a magnetic field, the laser, etc. pain is effectively killed, the inflammation decreases, and parallel drug treatment is more effective. By means of massage it is possible to remove stress and pain of muscles, to activate blood circulation. Manual therapy gives the chance to kill acute and constant chronic joint pains and a backbone, to increase the volume of movements, and also exerts the general positive impact on an organism. Procedure of extension of a backbone is used for removal of a strong pain syndrome. It is carried out on the special equipment. In process the intervertebral space increases, the backbone is got into condition. Drug treatment practice in the basic in the period of an aggravation.
But in most cases even effective treatment allows to slow down only progressing of an illness, to warn an aggravation. It is completely possible to recover only at an initial stage of osteochondrosis. It is important to consider that duration of treatment depends on that, the illness, therapy methods, and also from that is how started, how carefully the patient carries out all appointments and recommendations of the doctor. As a rule, the period of active treatment proceeds from one to three months. After operation of people about one year is recovered. If conservative therapy does not bring the expected results, and also there are special indications, then the doctor appoints carrying out operational treatment.
Prevention of osteochondrosis
People who already suffer from displays of osteochondrosis need to try not to overload a backbone and to reduce to a minimum pressure in intervertebral disks. It is desirable always to try to hold a back exactly, to avoid backbone traumatization. The convenient bed is important for a night dream: it is necessary to pick up individually orthopedic mattress. It is not necessary to lift weights weighing more than 10 kg, and to lift a subject, it is necessary to sit down, take initially a subject, and then to rise together with it. Women should not wear shoes on too high heel. Besides, people who complain of a dorsodynia should carry out every day the exercises strengthening a muscular corset. It is recommended to do swimming whenever possible.