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January 20, 2012
Osteochondrosis is a state at which a number of disturbances in joint cartilages of dystrophic character is observed. Osteochondrosis can be shown in different joints, however most often osteochondrosis affects intervertebral disks. If to consider the place of localization of a disease, then osteochondrosis can be divided on chest, cervical, lumbar.
Osteochondrosis is a disease which to become an origin of pain in spin approximately in 80% of cases. In case of complication of osteochondrosis hernias of intervertebral disks pain sometimes arises in the head, extremities, other bodies. The lumbar osteochondrosis provoking an onychalgia is considered the most widespread. Many people complain of displays of cervical osteochondrosis at which hands and the head hurt. At a chest form of an illness pain arises in internals.
Bipedalism of the person is considered an initial origin of osteochondrosis of a backbone. There are many various theories concerning osteochondrosis origins. Those, for example, are predisposition of hereditary character, an injury, disturbance of exchange processes in an organism. Definition of origins of this disease becomes complicated the fact that the illness is shown at people of different age, a different constitution and physical level of development.
There is also a theory that adjournment of salts in a backbone becomes the reason of osteochondrosis. However specialists claim that it to some extent is delusion. And correct analysis of origins of an illness is the main effective treatment of an illness.
At osteochondrosis character of an illness is noninflammatory, degenerative and dystrophic. In development of an illness fabric food is broken, its structure regenerates. People who constantly have active exercise stresses have stronger and elastic tissues of a bone. This results from the fact that backbone disks at the adult of own vessels have no, therefore, both oxygen, and nutrients come to disks from fabrics which are located a row. Similar process can be full only in case of active blood circulation which is possible only in the course of a permanent hard work of muscles.
Each intervertebral disk is made by two parts. In the center of a disk there is a jellylike kernel which does a disk elastic, and surrounds its fibrous strong ring. If food of intervertebral disks is worse to become, then the structure of biopolymer connections can collapse. Owing to reduction of moisture content in a disk it to become brittle. And if the backbone is exposed to overloads, the jellylike kernel is divided into fragments. As a result of its elasticity considerably decreases. Fibrous rings also lose durability. The similar phenomena become a starting point for manifestation at the person of osteochondrosis.
In view of manifestation of degenerative and dystrophic changes in a backbone there is calcification of the damaged disks, sheaves, capsules. The similar phenomenon – the last stage of development of a disease.
Unfortunately, the return process after similar changes in a backbone is almost impossible. Therefore the main task of treatment of osteochondrosis is maintenance of the current standing.
Generally displays of osteochondrosis become more expressed at people after achievement of thirty-five-year age. At the same time, the person becomes more senior, the more displays of an illness at him are observed. However recently with complaints to dorsodynias more and more young people see doctors.
First of all very weak physical activity, problems with a bearing, and also the bent backbone, flat-footedness and obesity is the reasons of so early developing of osteochondrosis. Today as the main origins of osteochondrosis it is considered to be the following:
- predisposition of hereditary character;
- problems with exchange processes, intoxication, infections;
- existence of excess weight, irrational food (small consumption of liquid lack of microelements);
- existence of spine injuries, its curvature, wrong bearing, flat-footedness;
- existence in bad ecological conditions;
- inactive way of life;
- regular heavy lifting, work in inconvenient poses a long time, activity at which the person often repeats the ryvkovy movements, turns and bendings of a trunk;
- too strong exercise stresses, backbone overload owing to diseases of foot, inconvenience in the course of carrying footwear, and also loading during pregnancy;
- the sudden termination of continuous trainings by people who play sports, stresses, malicious smoking.
Complications of osteochondrosis
As complications of osteochondrosis the following diseases are shown: kyphosis, protrusion, disk hernia, radiculitis.
At people who have osteochondrosis first of all notable dorsodynias are shown. Sometimes similar pain is followed by numbness, and also feelings of an ache in extremities. If therapy of osteochondrosis does not begin in time, then the person quickly grows thin, it has an atrophy of extremities. At physical exercises and loading, and also in the course of a raising of too heavy objects, in the course of sneezing and cough pain can become more intensive. At the patient with osteochondrosis the volume of movements decreases, spasms of muscles are shown.
Cervical osteochondrosis is shown in view of features of a structure of cervical department of a backbone. Vertebrae of cervical department have considerably the smaller sizes, than vertebrae of other departments of a backbone. Respectively, cervical osteochondrosis is shown because of constant load of a neck. Symptoms of cervical osteochondrosis are expressed as follows: pain is shown in hands, a neck, shoulders, there can be also headaches. The syndrome of a vertebral artery is characteristic of this type of a disease. At manifestation of this syndrome of people feels existence of noise in the head, before eyes "front sights" flash, the head is turned. Before eyes there can be multi-colored spots, in parallel the person feels severe pain in the head of the pulsing character. Symptoms of cervical osteochondrosis sometimes remind symptoms of stenocardia, but at the same time at the patient at research are not observed change in heart.
At patients with osteochondrosis of chest department of a backbone the patient feels pain in a thorax. Pain can give to the area of heart, and also to other internals.
Patients with osteochondrosis of lumbosacral department of a backbone feel a back pain which can give to legs, a sacrum, to bodies of a small pelvis. They strike nervous roots, sensitivity is broken, reflexes can decrease and be shown hypotonia.
Diagnosis of osteochondrosis
"Osteochondrosis" the specialist establishes the preliminary diagnosis already during primary survey of the patient. As a rule, inspection is performed by the doctor-neuropathologist. Usually the patient comes to reception with complaints to pain, and also to deformation or restriction of mobility.
Research of a backbone of the patient is conducted in a standing position, lying and sitting, the doctor examines it and in the movement, and at rest. In the course of survey the doctor surely pays attention to a bearing of the person, feature of his constitution, feature of a backbone, a relief of muscles which are located near a backbone.
Thanks to palpation of a backbone results of survey of the patient can be added with information on whether there is a deformation of a backbone where pain is localized, and also to define degree of its intensity. In the course of palpation is defined also, muscles near a backbone are how strained, the muscle tone accompanies the majority of diseases and injuries. To determine amplitude of movements of different departments of a backbone, possibilities of its bending are studied.
At diagnosis of osteochondrosis the computer tomography, a X-ray, a magnetic and resonant tomography is often applied. These methods allow to find out what level of damage of a backbone, to define whether there are latent pathologies and to concretize the diagnosis.
Thanks to the correct approach to diagnosis the doctor can define what tactics of therapy to it to choose that the result was the most highly effective.
Treatment of osteochondrosis
Treatment of cervical osteochondrosis, and also other forms of an illness and their complications is carried out using conservative methods which purpose is elimination of pain, recovery of functions of spinal roots, and also for the prevention of the dystrophic phenomena in structures of a backbone.
If all methods of conservative treatment do not bring due effect, and for this purpose there are special indications, then the patient sometimes appoints surgical methods of treatment of osteochondrosis. The volume of surgical intervention directly depends on that, the backbone is how affected and illness symptoms are intensive.
Also therapy duration depends on weight of an illness. As a rule, the active phase of treatment by means of conservative methods takes generally about 1-3 months. After operation the patient is recovered about about one year. After the beginning of conservative treatment at many patients with osteochondrosis strengthening of pain is observed. It is expressed reaction of muscles and other educations to treatment.
If a pain syndrome too strong, it it is possible to stop rather quickly by means of physiotherapeutic methods, medicines and use of a complex of specially developed exercises for patients with osteochondrosis. It is important to consider that an important factor which influences efficiency of treatment is correctness of behavior of the patient, his adequate relation to need to adhere to the developed treatment method. The persistence, patience and desire to win against an illness is for this purpose important. It is proved that the most effective is carrying out conservative treatment and recovery after operation in sanatorium conditions, and also in the medical centers which specialize in treatment of this disease. In the presence of necessary equipment, and also the qualified doctors complex treatment will be the most effective and productive.
One of the most important methods of impact on a condition of a musculoskeletal system of the person are the physiotherapy exercises. The patient regularly carries out a certain number of exercises during which gradually there is a decompression of nervous roots, correction of a muscular corset, flexibility of the copular and muscular device increases. Special exercises at cervical osteochondrosis allow to provide also efficient prevention of further development of a disease. The main condition at the same time is the regularity of performance of all exercises.
When using physical therapy there is a treatment of osteochondrosis by means of physical factors – magnetic fields, current of low frequency, ultrasound, etc. This technique allows to reduce rehabilitation term after operation, and also to strengthen influence of different medicamentous means.
By means of massage it is possible to remove a muscle tension, to improve a blood stream, to make the strengthening influence generally.
For removal of sharp pain manual therapy is used. This technique also allows to correct a bearing. Pain is also killed by means of extension of a backbone – the procedure which is carried out on the special equipment. At reflexotherapy there is an influence reflexogenic zones of a human body and allows to improve influence of other methods considerably.
During an exacerbation of a disease treatment by means of medicamentous means by means of which the inflammation is removed is applied, pain is stopped, exchange processes become more active. Medicines are entered intravenously or intramusculary.
The most notable results of treatment are observed when using several methods in a complex. However at treatment of cervical osteochondrosis and other forms of a disease only the attending physician has to appoint them.
Prevention of osteochondrosis
To prevent display of osteochondrosis, it is necessary to remember implementation of several important rules constantly. First of all, the patients suffering from a certain form of osteochondrosis have to realize that they are forbidden to lift the weight exceeding 10 kilograms. If heavy loading and heavy lifting is supposed, it is necessary to use a special belt or a corset. It is not necessary to hold heavy objects on outstretched arms, it creates additional load of a backbone. Lifting weights, it is necessary to sit down on hunkers and to rise together with a heavy subject. Loading has to be distributed evenly.
Very important before starting physical exercises or before other loading to drink a liquid quantity, if the organism is dehydrated, then disks of a backbone cannot absorb the necessary amount of moisture.
Periodic massage of a back improves blood circulation and exchange processes. After loadings or long work it is desirable to hang for a while in one pose on a horizontal bar or at least to stretch with the hands raised up a little. It is impossible to allow sharp turns and movements.
There is a special set of exercises, directed to prevention of osteochondrosis. It the exercises aimed at the development of flexibility and training of muscles of a back.