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Call osteoporosis a disease which is characterized by loss of elasticity and durability of bones, thinning and fragility that leads to the fact that they can easily break that in transfer is meant by the "rarefied bone". Osteoporosis takes the fourth place in the world on prevalence, after cardiovascular and oncological diseases, and also a diabetes mellitus.
The disease has the expressed age character, that is in risk group there are women and men are more senior than 55 years. This illness is the reason of a fracture of neck of a hip which is often observed at women after 60 flyings. Osteoporosis arises at disturbances of regulation of content of mineral substances, first of all calcium in bones. At osteoporosis of a bone break even at small injuries, for example, when falling in a winter season, and vertebrae can break even owing to a raising of weights. Changes very badly grow together. Complications of osteoporosis often result in disability.
At normal development, the bone constantly collapses and again is recovered and if destruction happens quicker than updating, then osteoporosis develops.
Factors which influence development of a disease very much. Among them will manufacture the following reasons of osteoporosis:
- low physical activity, slow-moving way of life;
- improper feeding, shortage of vitamins;
- disturbances of functions of pancreatic and thyroid glands;
- smoking, excessive alcohol intake;
- use of hormonal drugs;
- disturbance of functions of ovaries;
- hormonal disturbances in the period of a menopause.
Types of osteoporosis
The most widespread classification of a disease is based on what minerals or substances are not enough in an organism, as leads to development of an illness.
On this classification will manufacture the following types of osteoporosis:
- post-menopausal which is caused shortcomings of a body of the woman of hormone of the estrogen participating in regulation of an exchange of calcium;
- senile (or senile) arises at an age lack of calcium, usually after 70 flyings;
- secondary osteoporosis arises as a result of other diseases, for example, at a chronic renal failure, hormonal disturbances, a diabetes mellitus, radiation injuries and long reception of some drugs (corticosteroids, anticonvulsants).
Have fractures of bones which are caused by osteoporosis every third woman aged 60 years are more senior. There are several factors which promote development of a disease. Among them women are aged more senior than 65 years having the relatives having this disease. And also the having some endocrine diseases, a diabetes mellitus, a pseudorheumatism, a hyperthyroidism, a chronic renal failure, low weight (it is less than 60 kg) and a brittle constitution, an early menopause and low mineral density of bones. Also, smoking, excessive alcohol intake and coffee, low physical activity, deficit of vitamin D, reception of certain medicinal, generally hormonal drugs belong to risk factors.
Usually reduction of density of bones happens slowly, and the disease proceeds asymptomatically (especially senile osteoporosis). However ostealgias at weather changing can disturb patients, changes in a bearing, fragility of nails and hair, destruction of teeth.
The main symptoms of osteoporosis appear when the bone is already strongly thinned. The "aching" pains in lumbar and chest department when performing static work (when sitting), reduction of growth because of a flash of vertebrae can disturb what leads to change of a bearing, periodontosis, an early gray hair, a hernia nuclei pulposi, tachycardia, stratification and fragility of nails, night spasms in legs. There can be also a so-called "widow hump", i.e. a rachiocampsis forward. At such symptoms, without waiting for changes, it is the best of all to see a doctor.
The backbone and hip joint are especially subject to changes. Fractures of a neck of a hip, bone of a forearm, wrist meet most often. Changes usually arise at the smallest damages, and begin to live very slowly. Changes usually are followed by an acute pain, hypostasis, disturbance of a physical activity.
Diagnosis of osteoporosis
Usually the patient addresses the doctor with a change, and diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on the yielded survey of the place of a change and results of X-ray inspection of a bone. These roentgenograms allow to define osteoporosis when more than 20% of a bone tissue are lost.
However it is possible to define the diagnosis and to a change by an assessment of density of bones. The most exact method of measurement of density of a bone is the method of a x-ray absorbtsiometriya. It will be out to women with risk of development of osteoporosis, it absolutely painless and consists in radiation by lower doses, than at a usual X-ray analysis. With its help it is possible to measure the maintenance of minerals in bones.
Ostedensitometriya allows to estimate density of bone tissues, and the computer tomography — to estimate its condition, and the disease at early stages helps to reveal these researches, for the present there are no changes. Results of these researches help the attending physician to pick up the corresponding effective treatment.
Treatment of osteoporosis
The disease is much simpler to warn, than to treat it. Treatment is much more expensive, than prevention of osteoporosis, and it is only capable to improve a condition of bone system calcium drugs in combination with vitamin D reception. For treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis appoint reception of a bisfosfonata, fluorides and a calcitonin.
Bisfosfonata (aklast, bonviv, alendronat-sodium) rather expensive drugs which are effective at treatment of osteoporosis. To women treatment of osteoporosis replacement therapy, reception of estrogen which are capable to suspend development of a disease can be also appointed. A calcitonin (Miakaltsik) intramusculary or in the form of an aerosol appoint that who had fractures of vertebras. Compounds of fluorine influence density of a bone tissue, however this fabric is rather fragile. Teriparatid strengthens an osteogenesis, and strontium salts well influence bones. To men appoint reception of calcium and vitamin D.
At fractures of a wrist impose gypsum, and at fractures of a hip prosthetics of a femur is usually carried out. If vertebras are broken, appoint an immobilization and physical therapy, however often pain remains for a long time. In addition to medicinal therapy appoint use of corsets which support a back.
Prevention of osteoporosis
To prevent development of a disease it is necessary to care for bones, since young age. It is necessary to exclude risk factors of development of a disease, not to smoke and not to abuse alcohol, to watch that the standard daily rate of calcium made not less than 1000 mg. For this purpose include dairy products (milk, cottage cheese, cheese, yogurts), vegetables, cabbage, nuts, dried apricots, prunes, fish in a diet (a salmon, a sardine with bones). or calcium drugs are appointed, often they contain also vitamin D. Vitamin D also contains in yolks, fish oil and a liver. Food has to be balanced.
Increase in density of a bone tissue is promoted by regular physical exercises, for example run, walking, aerobics, dances, tennis and rises on a ladder, and also special exercises at which there is load of bones. It is necessary to avoid big exercise stresses which can lead to injuries, and excessive loss of a fatty tissue – to disturbance of a menstrual cycle and early approach of a menopause. It is necessary to happen more often on the sun since sunshine influence production of vitamin D. The woman should watch the menstrual cycle, to regularly visit the gynecologist.
Complications of osteoporosis
Among the main complications of osteoporosis it is possible to note private fractures of extremities which badly grow together. Fractures of a neck of a femur or backbone can result in disability.