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Acute gastritis call an acute inflammation of a mucous membrane of a stomach which appears under the influence of chemical, mechanical, thermal or bacterial factors. Gastritis in partial damage of a superficial epithelium mucous and the ferruterous device, and, then, by further development in it inflammatory changes is shown. The begun inflammatory process can extend to all thickness of a mucous membrane and even a muscular layer of a wall of a stomach or will be limited to a superficial epithelium of mucous.
According to the statistics, acute gastritises – the most widespread disease in the world, in a varying degree gets sick with them more than a half of adult population.
Classification of acute gastritises
Depending on the reasons for which the inflammation of a mucous membrane of a stomach appears acute gastritises are divided into 3 groups:
1. Acute simple or Gastritis acuta simplex.
2. Phlegmonous or Gastritis phlegmonosa, phlegmona ventriculi.
3. Korrozivnye or Gastritis corrosiva.
In turn, simple acute gastritis will be subdivided into exogenous and endogenous forms.
Exogenous or otherwise, irritativny gastritises develop under the influence of external factors: the use of substandard food, a systematic overeating, the use in food of very acute, fat, excessively hot or too cold products, food hard to digest, hard alcoholic drinks etc. (alimentary gastritis).
Endogenous gastritises or hematogenous which are connected with internal impact on a mucous membrane of a stomach of various pathological agents. This influence proceeds from own organism: acute infections, disintegration of proteins of an organism at burns and radiation, disbolism, disturbances of mentality etc.
The reasons of gastritises are diverse. It becomes frequent the gastritis reason Helicobacter pylori bacterium, but there are also other reasons.
It can be a banal bad chewing of food, owing to laziness, an addiction or a state of disrepair of teeth.
Disturbance of a diet, overeating, especially after the previous period of long starvation, can also lead xerophagia to developing of acute gastritis. Abuse of alcoholic beverages and smoking can become other reason of an inflammation of a stomach.
It should be noted especially such reason as toxicoinfections, that is reception of the substandard or infected food: prick - infections, botulism, staphylococcal toxicoinfections, salmonelloses, etc.
Heavy injuries of a mucous membrane of a stomach can be provoked by long reception of some medicines. Such as antibiotics, salicylic drugs, streptocides, quinine, digitalis, bromine, arsenic, iodine, Butadionum, steroid hormones, quinophan, insulin, etc.
Because of individual hypersensitivity to some medicamentous means emergence of heavy allergic gastritises is also possible.
It is possible to carry various acute and chronic infectious diseases, such as abscess of lungs, a typhoid, measles, scarlet fever, diphtheria, flu, a sapropyra, tuberculosis etc. to the endogenous reasons of development of gastritises.
Origin of this group of gastritises in hematogenous drift in a wall of a stomach of the disease-producing microbes and toxic substances emitted by them. Besides, at infectious diseases there is a formation of a significant amount of toxic products of proteinaceous disintegration. They, together with bacterial toxins, also get gematogenno to stomach walls, causing their inflammation. The reasons of gastritises can arise owing to uraemia, burns, freezing injury. These morbid conditions which are followed by circulator frustration, a hypoxia mucous a stomach and receipt in a blood stream of toxic substances make a pathogenetic basis of development of acute gastritis.
Among exogenous factors of development of gastritises, the main place is taken by the diseases connected with disbolism and activity of hemadens, it is a diabetes mellitus, gout, a thyrotoxicosis, etc.
Emergence of gastritis is frequent connect with influence of psychogenic factors, negative emotions and conditions of affect at which there is a disturbance of blood circulation in a stomach and functional frustration, i.e. disturbance of secretory and motor functions of a stomach.
Poisonings with some toxic agents happen one more frequent reason of acute gastritis: it can be strong acids, caustic alkalis, for example, liquid ammonia or the caustic soda. Poisonings can occur corrosive sublimate, potassium cyanide, arsenic, chloroform, lysol. Similar influence is not excluded and at the use of high concentration of alcohol and high doses of medical supplies. Such poisoning can be by mistake or purposely for the purpose of a suicide.
All listed toxic agents not only cause irritation mucous a stomach, but, in the concentrated look, possess pronounced necrotizing action. Degree and prevalence of such defeats depend on concentration and time of stay of specific toxic agent in a stomach.
In mild cases and short duration of influence, the mucous membrane can regenerate, in hard cases development of rough cicatricial changes is inevitable.
Phlegmonous gastritis is a developing purulent inflammation of a stomach. Results from traumatizing a wall of a stomach a foreign subject, for example, a fish stone. There is infection of this area with a pyogenic infection. Phlegmonous gastritis in an anticardium differs in high temperature and intolerable pains. Phlegmonous acute gastritis demands immediate surgical intervention, otherwise peritonitis begins and most often the illness comes to an end with death.
Symptoms of acute gastritis
Very often gastritis proceeds asymptomatically, nevertheless, sooner or later, symptoms of gastritis are shown and depend on an illness form. General symptoms of gastritis: pains in upper part of a stomach on an empty stomach and/or after food, weight in a stomach after meal, nausea, vomiting, an eructation, weight loss, appetite loss. Symptoms of acute gastritis can times disappear, then appear again. At survey the language which is laid over by a grayish-white plaque is visible, the patient complains of the increased hypersalivation or, on the contrary, dryness in a mouth, heartburn, sometimes frequent locks, an unpleasant smell in a mouth, weakness. Perspiration, dizziness, a headache, temperature increase, lowering of arterial pressure, tachycardia is noted.
Acute gastritis of an eroziyny form, except the general symptoms, can is shown by symptoms of gastric bleeding: an abdominal pain, vomiting and emergence in the emetic mass of dark blood clots or streaks, a dark tar-like chair.
At a palpation pain in upper part of a stomach comes to light.
On average acute simple gastritis lasts for five days. Timely treatment of acute gastritis gives the favorable forecast. If action of harmful factors repeats, acute gastritis passes into a chronic stage.
Diagnosis of acute gastritis
The most effective and modern diagnostic method of gastritis, the fibrogastroduodenoendoskopiya (FGDS) is now. The FGDS method allows to perform inspection of a mucous membrane of a stomach by means of a probe and a biopsy, i.e. captures of a piece of fabric mucous on the analysis. This method allows to distinguish gastritis from a peptic ulcer of a stomach. On the basis of the data obtained during FGDS, doctors divide gastritis on erosive and not erosive.
Treatment of acute gastritis
Treatment of gastritis of an acute form is almost always begun with an obligatory gastric lavage and purgation. In case of an infectious etiology appoint antibacterial drugs (Enteroseptolum, levomycetinum and pr) and the absorbing means: absorbent carbon or kaolin, etc. In cases of acute allergic gastritis it is recommended purposes of antihistamines. At the expressed pain syndrome – spazmopitik, cholinolytic drugs: atropine, Platyphyllinum hydrotartrate. At organism dehydration parenterally enter isotonic solution of sodium chloride and glucose.
The easy course of acute gastritis is usually treated in house conditions and takes 2-3 weeks. Actions include:
- Rigid diet — in the first two days of an illness abstention of meals, is authorized only warm drink, then the sparing food is recommended: the warm, low-fat and wiped dishes.
- Prescription of medicines: the adsorbing toxins enveloping walls of a stomach, the anesthetics improving digestion of a sore stomach, reducing acidity, sometimes for the purpose of disposal of an infection, to patients antibiotics are appointed.
Prevention of simple acute gastritis is reduced to observance of rules of a balanced diet. Sanitary and educational work with the population and strict sanitary inspection at catering establishments is very important.