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Human papillomavirus infection (Virus of papilloma of the person)
The human papillomavirus infection of the person is an illness which belongs to group of infectious and is transmitted between people sexually. And even if visible displays of this illness at the person are not observed, all the same this illness is rather serious and dangerous. At the same time every year doctors note total magnification of number of patients with this disease.
Causative agent of a papillmavirusny infection
The papillomatosis at the person is shown as an effect of influence of the virus belonging to family of papovirus. This virus belongs to group of the viruses containing DNA. Directly the structure of a virus contains nucleic acid at which the transforming and infectious properties are noted.
The virus of papilloma of the person can be revealed on mucous membranes, on skin of the person. Also it can contain in other bodies: in a rectum, in a gullet, in generative organs, etc. According to specialists, the virus initially affects basal cells then there is their transformation and division. As a result at the person papilloma is shown.
Today more than 100 viruses of papilloma which differ with a variety of types and specifics of fabrics are allocated. characterized by specific and fabric specificity. Defeat of certain fabrics and human organs happens depending on virus type. At the same time the papilloma virus at men and women is very often combined with influence of other activators provoking development of diseases which are transmitted sexually.
Throughout long time it was considered to be that this virus is only an origin at the person of warts, both skin, and genital. However information that papillomaviruses have oncogenous properties eats now, therefore, they can provoke oncological diseases.
The matter is that at infection of cells of an epithelium with a virus of papilloma of the person develop a neoplasia (change of normal structure of cells is characteristic of this phenomenon), having both high-quality, and malignant character. Some of viruses of papilloma of the person provoke process of activation of oncogenes of a virus. They not only directly influence a cellular cycle, but also brake influence of the blocking proteins. As a result, there can be a process of an ozlokachestvleniye. However it is necessary to consider that all viruses of papilloma can be subdivided into two different subspecies: with low and high degree of oncogenous risk.
If the person catches a virus with low degree of oncogenicity, then at the infected person genital condylomas, and also dysplasias of an epithelium of a neck of uterus of easy degree develop over time.
The virus of papilloma of the person type 16 and 18 which differs in oncogenicity of high degree can provoke development of precancerous diseases.
The risk factors influencing infection with a human papillomavirus infection
Much more often papillomavirusny it is found in women of an infection if they constantly have a large number of sexual partners and have no the arranged sex. The high risk infection with this virus takes place also at those girls who began sex life very much early, and also at those who ignore barrier contraception, in particular, a condom.
The catalyst of progressing of a virus in a female organism are also addictions – continuous alcohol intake, malicious smoking. Risk factors are inflammatory processes in an organism, immunnnosupressivny diseases.
In turn, exactly infection with a virus of papilloma of the person becomes later the reason of development of an oncological disease. The researches conducted for many years demonstrate that at women of VPCh it becomes frequent one of the reasons of display of heavy illnesses — a cancer of a vagina and a vulva, a planocellular carcinoma of a neck of uterus.
Therefore, it is important to know that transfer of a disease happens generally sexually, and also at household contacts, in the course of medical manipulations and during passing of the baby in patrimonial ways. There is also confirmed information on infection of physicians in the course of carrying out medical manipulations.
For the sexual partner of the patient with a virus of papilloma of the person is infectious.
The human papillomavirus infection at women and men is rather often combined with other diseases which the person catches sexually. At the same time in case of urogenital clamidiosis, a bacterial vaginosis, mycoplasmosis and some other diseases progressing of the VPCh-infection happens much more actively.
As a result both illnesses pass into a chronic form, and the urinogenital sphere of the patient suffers pathological changes, inflammatory processes develop. At the same time illnesses will very badly respond to treatment. In the presence at the patient is a human papillomavirus infection and an illness which is transmitted sexually, total period of treatment lasts much longer, recurrence is often shown.
Except the factors stated above, development or recurrence of VPCh are promoted by the general deterioration in functions of immune system of an organism, strong overcooling of an organism, disturbance of hormonal balance, some medical interventions (abortion, introduction of intrauterine contraceptives). Also the risk of infection at pregnant women increases. People in whose organism the insufficient maintenance of a number of vitamins, folic acid are more susceptible to defeat by a virus.
Displays of a papillmavirusny infection
The papilloma virus at men and women is not shown by visible symptoms throughout rather long span. But at the same time the virus develops active life activity in a human body that as a result conducts to negative effects. According to medical statistics, easy degree of a dysplasia passes in heavy approximately into 10% of cases; moderate degree of a dysplasia – in 20% of cases; heavy degree of a dysplasia gradually passes into an oncological disease in 12% of cases. However, the periods of transition of one stage of an illness in another are rather long. Therefore both the patient, and the doctor has time to make everything for prevention in the future of development of cancer.
Duration of an incubation interval of an illness can proceed a different span – from one month to one year. But on average it lasts from three to six months.
Most often the illness affects young people. The Papillomamvirusny infection can develop differently: its symptoms are very diverse. In most cases the human papillomavirus infection is shown by emergence at the patient of sharp-pointed condylomas, the flat and inverted condylomas with internal growth, papillary kinds of condylomas.
Sharp-pointed condylomas are formed at the patient on skin and mucous membranes. They have the wide basis or very thin leg, can look as one small knot or multiple outgrowths. Such education on skin is similar to a cauliflower or a cock crest.
At internal (endophytic) formation of condylomas to diagnose an illness rather difficult as the expressed defeat of an epithelium is absent.
At genitalias in places where there are damages, or there is their continuous contact with moisture, genital condylomas are shown. At women such educations affect a vagina, small vulvar lips, a neck of uterus, area about an anus, skin on generative organs. At infection of the man sharp-pointed condylomas develop on a balanus, near a prepuce, on perianal area.
At infection of the person with a virus of papilloma of the person 16 types are often shown so-called bowenoid papules. These educations are similar to ordinary warts or a seborrheal keratosis. This type of a disease is most often diagnosed for young people and combined with sharp-pointed condylomas and herpes. Such educations disappear spontaneously, but in certain cases can pass into a malignant form.
Color of sharp-pointed condylomas can be corporal, pink, red. Sometimes in places of emergence of papillomas there is an itch and because they are easily injured, there is a morbidity in zones of their development. When condylomas increase especially intensively, the patient can feel burning, sometimes on places of such educations ulcers develop.
Seldom condylomas which develop on external genitals change in a so-called huge condyloma of Bushke-Levenstein. Initially on generative organs there are small borodavchatopodobny educations which very quickly grow and merge in uniform education. With a growth of such condyloma the subject fabrics collapse, but nevertheless such education passes into a malignant form very seldom.
The papillomny infection causes a laryngeal papillomatosis and emergence of genital warts in children. The virus is transmitted to the child in the transplacental way, and also during passing of the baby through patrimonial ways. Sometimes the kid is infected in the household way after the birth.
At pregnancy very often the infected woman has a palindromia. At the same time condylomas expand and become friable. After the delivery the illness, as a rule, regresses.
Diagnosis of a papillmavirusny infection
In view of the fact that to define existence of sharp-pointed condylomas and papillomatous growths very simply even without special tools, diagnosis of a disease is simple process. However at initial stages of an illness when condylomas are a little expressed and remind only a rough surface, to define them it is rather problematic. Therefore the cytology of bioptat and smears is considered an important method of establishment of the diagnosis. So-called fathers tests are carried out if damage of a neck of uterus and vagina at the woman takes place. If specialists define existence of a koykilotsitoz (it is about a necrosis of cytoplasm and emergence of ballonopodobny cells) at the patient, then this sign is considered criterion for evaluation of a papillomny infection of generative organs. In the course of diagnosis necessary information can be obtained by use of a kolposkopiya at which a zone of probable defeat 3% are processed by acetic acid. As a result the centers become white-gray.
If the patient has no illness symptoms, or they are expressed softly, then the technique of polimerazny chain reaction is sometimes applied to diagnosis. This research also gives the chance to define what type of a virus infected the person.
Treatment of a papillmavirusny infection
If to estimate total quantity of infectious diseases, then the VPCh-infection is widespread most widely. But, unfortunately, now the medicine practically does not offer the methods allowing to get rid completely of this illness.
Therefore, treatment of a human papillomavirus infection is directed, first of all, to disposal of condylomas, and also on creation of such conditions under which the virus bred and progressed as it is possible more slowly.
At use of different methods of therapy it is possible to get rid of genital condylomas in most cases. But at the same time approximately in a quarter of cases the recurrence of a disease happening over three months is noted.
If treatment of a virus of papilloma of the person does not practice in general, then sometimes genital condylomas can independently disappear. However the probability that without treatment of a condyloma will progress is high. Besides, it is important to conduct additional researches which allow to define existence of diseases, sexually transmitted and to cure them.
Choosing treatment methods, the doctor does not allow use of toxic therapy, and also procedure which promote emergence of scars and hems. Treatment of an illness is appointed taking into account where condylomas are localized as the disease what illnesses accompany it, what general condition of a human body is shown. The scheme of treatment should be selected exclusively individually.
Today there are many various methods of treatment of a human papillomavirus infection. In particular, as destructive methods surgical excision of educations, cryotherapy, laser therapy, use of electrosurgical methods, diathermocoagulations practices.
Among chemical methods of therapy treatment by nitric acid, solkodermy, Pheresolum, trichloroacetic acid practices.
Besides, at treatment of a virus of papilloma of the person cytotoxic drugs are used: podophyllotoxin, 5-ftoruratsit, Podophyllinum. In the course of the combined treatment also interferona are applied. Combined treatment is the most preferable.
At treatment of pregnant women it is not necessary to hesitate that therapy was carried out on the earliest terms. In this case only physical destructive techniques of treatment, for example, cryotherapy practice.
In the course of treatment it is important to know that the person is not the carrier of this virus for life. However if the virus comes to light three times, and intervals between progressing of an illness make 4 months, the risk of oncological diseases of an epithelium increases by 14 times.
At any displays of a human papillomavirus infection it is impossible to undertake independent and unsystematic treatment at all not to provoke complications.
Prevention of a papillmavirusny infection
Adhering to methods of prevention of a human papillomavirus infection, it is possible to reduce considerably risk of developing of certain oncological pathologies at women and men. There are several kinds of preventive methods. So, as primary prevention of a papillomavirus early detection of the centers of an infection and the risk factors promoting its distribution is important. Vaccination against a virus of papilloma of the person is considered also primary methods of prevention. Influence of such vaccine will the most effective if enter it to young people prior to the beginning of sex life.
Methods of secondary prevention of this infection include use of programs of screening diagnosis which allows to diagnose an illness as soon as possible.
Tertiary prevention assumes reduction of probable recurrence at the people who are already infected with a virus of papilloma of the person.
One of the major moments in prevention of a disease educational work among teenagers who are going to begin the sexual relations is considered. Young people have to realize accurately risk of infection with a papillomavirus and other diseases which are transmitted sexually.
But at the same time by very effective method of prevention use of condoms at sexual contacts with non-constant sexual partners will be simple. If the infection is found in the person, then it is important to conduct examination of all sexual partners infected for the last year.