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Parkinsonism (other name — Parkinson's illness, trembling paralysis) is a brain illness which has the progressing chronic character. For the first time in detail about this illness the English doctor J. Parkinson in 1817 wrote, respectively, a name of the specialist and served as the name for an illness.
The main feature which is noted at patients with parkinsonism is involuntary trembling of extremities. Also manifestation of muscular rigidity, deterioration in the speech and coordination of movements, the complicated movement is characteristic of them. As a rule, similar symptoms are brightly shown at people after sixty-year age though in more exceptional cases development of parkinsonism is possible also at people who were not 50 years old yet.
Feature of parkinsonism is its continuous progressing therefore over time its main symptoms become more and more expressed. As a result Parkinson's illness provokes disability, the patient cannot fully live and work. However, progress of an illness happens slowly therefore even after confirmation of the diagnosis "parkinsonism" people fully live as early as many years and work.
To define the very first symptoms of parkinsonism especially difficult. Those is the immovability of hands of the person during walking, easy trembling which is periodically shown in fingers of hands, a little noticeable disturbances in the course of the speech. The patient at whom this illness develops feels weakness, a breakdown, he suffers from depression attacks, periodically it shows sleeplessness. Besides earlier usual and simple actions – shaving, acceptance of a shower, cleaning, etc. demand much bigger efforts, are given more difficult and occupy more long span.
The tremor at parkinsonism in most cases begins to be shown by small trembling of hands, also separate fingers can shiver. At a tremor of hands the uncharacteristic movements of big and average fingers which resemble superficially rollings something between fingers ("a syndrome of driving of pills") can be shown. There is also an emergence of a tremor of the lower extremities. Similar symptoms it is sometimes more expressed bodies are shown on the one hand, in other cases the tremor occurs symmetrically. At development of parkinsonism it is combined with a number of the symptoms testimonial of defeat of a nervous system of the person: at it sensitivity, coordination, etc. can be broken. Especially expressed manifestations of a tremor happen when the person stays under the influence of a stress. At the same time trembling of hands and legs, causing a number of inconveniences, considerably does not break capacity of the person. The tremor is not shown during a dream. Very often at patients with Parkinson's illness only weak trembling of extremities is shown.
One more expressed symptom at parkinsonism is slowness of the movement (a so-called bradykinesia). After a while at patients new symptoms begin to be shown. First of all, their movements become slowed down and awkward, at the same time problems with coordination of movements are noted. There is also muscle tension of legs which can complicate considerably the movements and break gait. In some cases manifestation of muscle tension is fraught with morbidity and a forging of movements.
At parkinsonism of heavy degree of people can suddenly lose balance. However in development of an illness this display of parkinsonism many years remain insignificant.
At the patient with this illness also loss of automatism of movements is observed. In a normality of people can involuntarily smile, blink, swing during walking hands. All these operations are performed unconsciously, however at patients with parkinsonism similar automatism often stops partially or absolutely. At some patients on a face as if expression of attention, a fixed, unwinking gaze stiffens. Except a mimicry, at the person with such illness ability to gesticulate can disappear.
Disturbances of the speech are also symptoms of an illness of Parkinson. The person can speak illegibly, poorly modulate. In his speech the pressure, intonations disappears, the person communicates quietly and monotonously. In this case the special discomfort is felt by elderly people whose badly hearing partners in life can simply not hear their speech.
In the course of progressing of an illness disturbances of salivation and swallowing are shown. Generally such signs are characteristic of a heavy stage of an illness, however in most cases patients can accept food without assistance.
The insignificant number of patients with parkinsonism also suffer from displays of weak-mindedness. They cannot sensibly think, do not understand elementary things, it is heavy to them to remember. Weak-mindedness as a symptom is characteristic generally of people with Alzheimer's disease, however in certain cases it is characteristic also of patients with parkinsonism.
Today it is proved that symptoms of parkinsonism develop at the person in view of certain damages or final fracture of some nerve terminations to black substance of a brain. At normal functioning of nerve terminations they produce substance dopamine which directly participates in a momentum transfer which provide the normal movements. At patients with parkinsonism production of dopamine sharply decreases, at the same time there is a failure in transfer of nervous impulses. As a result, there are main symptoms of an illness of Parkinson.
In process of aging of a human body of people loses a certain part of neurons which produce dopamine. However in case of parkinsonism at the patient more than a half of nerve terminations of black substance disappears. In development of a disease also other cells of a brain degenerate, but nevertheless defining there is a loss of the neurons producing dopamine.
Still the reasons causing destruction of these neurons are definitely not established. So, there is an opinion that parkinsonism is a consequence of an adverse combination of hereditary and external factors. Reception of some drugs, contact with toxic substances, and also certain diseases can become the reason of development and progressing of parkinsonism.
Some drugs, on condition of their too long reception or at reception of very high doses, can provoke manifestation of symptoms of an illness of Parkinson. The last belongs to a haloperidol and Chlorpromazinum which use in the course of treatment of a number of disorders of mental character. Some drugs against nausea can have the same influence. Drug Valproatum which is appointed the patient with epilepsy can provoke emergence of a tremor. However if to stop treatment by the specified medicines, parkinsonism symptoms disappear after a while.
Development of a secondary form of parkinsonism is often provoked by infections, and also brain injuries, diseases of vessels and a tumor. Parkinsonism can be shown and as an effect of atherosclerosis of vessels of a brain.
Diagnosis of parkinsonism
First of all, in the course of diagnosis of an illness of Parkinson careful neurologic inspection of the patient is performed. In certain cases the diagnosis can be made already according to results of such survey. As a rule, for diagnosis of an illness of Parkinson identification of existence of a triad of symptoms which includes a tremor, a bradykinesia, rigidity is enough.
In case of existence of doubts at the specialist of the patient has to pass some more additional researches, namely — ultrasonic research of a brain and vessels of a neck, brain MPT and KT, an angiography of vessels of a brain.
Treatment of parkinsonism
Treatment of parkinsonism is not made behind a certain accurate scheme. In each case the individual approach to the patient is used. At the same time if the scheme of treatment is picked up rationally, then the correct therapy allows not only to achieve positive results in treatment, but also to keep them throughout long time.
In the course of treatment of parkinsonism specialists often appoint drugs which actively influence acetylcholine, dopamine. Those drugs are some antidepressants, cholinolytics, neuroleptics.
Treatments of an illness of Parkinson it is also carried out by means of introduction to an organism of the sick substance lacking it. So, thanks to careful researches of parkinsonism drugs which in a human body turn into the dopamine lacking it were created. Besides, for treatment of a disease means which imitate influence in a dopamine organism, and also means which can effectively block substance destruction dopamine are appointed.
Those means which influence not dopamine structures of a brain suffering at people with Parkinson's illness are applied to treatment also. Such drugs can have notable effect at the first stages of an illness, however if to accept them a long time, then emergence of undesirable by-effects is possible. Not expected transition from a condition of norm to block and a tremor can be such phenomenon. Display of dyskinesia which is more characteristic of patients of young age is also possible.
It should be noted that earlier in the course of treatment of parkinsonism surgical methods, namely operative measures on destruction of departments of a brain which are responsible for a tremor and muscular rigidity were actively applied. But today similar methods of treatment already almost do not practice. Because researches of parkinsonism are actively conducted in the different countries, scientists open new effective methods of treatment of the people having diseases of neurologic character, and specifically parkinsonism
For example, stings of bees to places, active from the biological point of view, are applied to treatment of this illness. Physiotherapeutic methods, and also reflexotherapy, manual therapy are also actively applied. Often for recovery of a tone and vital forces, and also for the prevention of the accompanying illnesses of a backbone and joints sick parkinsonism appoint performance of exercises of remedial gymnastics.
Prevention of parkinsonism
Today not there is a speech about direct methods of prevention of parkinsonism, the reasons of its emergence are for certain not known. Therefore as disease prevention it is important to treat all infectious diseases, organism intoxications in time. It is very important to diagnose Parkinson's illness at an early stage in time to appoint its treatment.
At the same time people with parkinsonism should follow some rules which will allow to feel well long time.
Patients with parkinsonism have to follow the rules of healthy food, however the rigid diet is not for them obligatory. It is important to limit the caloric content of everyday food to prevent development of atherosclerosis. So, the preference should be given to fruit, vegetables, vegetable oil, fermented milk products. Also it is not necessary to refuse low-fat fish and meat.
It is impossible to take alcoholic beverages at all and to smoke. Researches of parkinsonism demonstrate that for people with this illness it is important to observe usual tenor of life constantly. Any changes will become additional loading and can negatively affect.
Sick this illness it is necessary to move as much as possible: as loading everyday walking, morning exercises, swimming approaches. It is impossible to limit at all desires of the patient to move and live actively. According to researches which are conducted now constant activity of the intellectual and physical plan stimulates development in a dopamine organism.